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Memory Short-Term Memory & Working Memory. THE MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY Sensory store  Holds sensory information for a very brief time  Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Short-Term Memory & Working Memory. THE MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY Sensory store  Holds sensory information for a very brief time  Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Short-Term Memory & Working Memory

2 THE MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY Sensory store  Holds sensory information for a very brief time  Information not attended to is lost Short-term memory (STM)  Holds information for limited time  7-9 items capacity  Information not rehearsed is displaced  Once rehearsed information is transfered to LTM Long-term memory (LTM)  Permenant memory store  Unlimited


4 SENSORY MEMORY  Iconic store  Visual information is stored  Echoic store  Auditory information is stored

5 SHORT-TERM STORE  Example: Trying to remember a telephone number  Limited capacity and fragile storage  Any distraction causes forgetting  The recency effect:  Last few items in a list are better remembered that the first or middle words  The primacy effect:  First few words remembered better than the middle words

6 SHORT-TERM STORE-Duration  Peterson and Peterson (1959)  Task of remembering three letters while counting backwards by threes.  The ability to remember the three letters declined to 50% after 6 seconds  This indicates that information is lost from short-term memory rapidly.  This may be because counting backwards results in interference or diverts attention away from STM.

7 SHORT-TERM STORE: Rehearsal  Rehearsal maintains information in short-term memory.  Words that are shorter and can be rehearsed rapidly should remain in STM  Words that take longer to reheasre will decay from STM.  Some evidence supports this while others do not.  Studies which do not support it cast doubt on the fact that short-term memory depends on rehearsal.

8 SHORT-TERM STORE: Forgetting  Forgetting from STM:  Decay  Proactive Interference (disruption of current learning by previous learnt material)  Example: Trying to study cognitive psychology after studying for neuropsychology.  Neuropsychology inteferes with cognitive psychology learning

9 WORKING MEMORY Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and Baddeley (1986)  Central Executive  Resembles attention  Controlling unit  Limited capacity  Phonological Loop  Stores speech-based information  Visuo-spatial sketchpad  Stores visual-based information  Episodic buffer  Integrates information from the Visuo-spatial sketchpad and Phonological loop. Controlled by the Central Executive



12 WORKING MEMORY: Assumptions  If two tasks use the same componet, they cannot be performed successfully together.  If two tasks use different components, it should be possible to perform them well together.

13 WORKING MEMORY PHONOLOGICAL LOOP  Phonological Similarity Effect  Recall of words is better when words sound different than when they sound the same.  Example: Recall is better for words such as UP and ODD, than HE and KNEE  Speech based reherasal within the phonological loop

14 WORKING MEMORY PHONOLOGICAL LOOP  Word Length Effect  Better recall of shorter words than longer words  Takes longer time to rehearse the longer words which causes greater levels of decay.

15 WORKING MEMORY PHONOLOGICAL LOOP  a) A passive phonological store directly concerned with speech production  Auditory presentation of words gain direct access to the phonological store  b) An articulatory process linked to speech production that gives access to the phonological loop  Words presented visually need to be articulated then gain access to the phonological store – access is therefore indirect  Word length effect therefore is dependent on articulatory rehearsal


17 VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD  Temporary storage and manipulation of spatial and visual information  Two components:  The visual cache  Stores information about visual form and colour  The inner scribe  Deals wıth spatial and movement information  Rehearses information in the visual cache  Tranfers information from the visual cache to the central executive  Involved in the planning and execution of body and limb movements

18 CENTRAL EXECUTIVE  Most important component of working memory  Damage to the frontal lobes can cause impairements to the central executive  Functions:  Switching attention between tasks  Planning subgoals to achieve goals  Selective attention and inhibition  Updating and checking the contents of working memory  Coding representations in working memory for time and place of appearance

19 CENTRAL EXECUTIVE  Single or multiple central executive functions?  Evidence favours the latter  Three central executive functions  Shifting attention  Updating information  Response inhibition  All share common processes (e.g., attention) but also function independently.

20 EPISODIC BUFFER  Stores and intergrates information from both the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad

21 MEMORY PROCESSES  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval

22 TESTS OF MEMORY  Free recall  Hardest type of recall  Least environmental support  Cued recall  Second hardest type of recall  Provides some environmental support  Recognition  Easiest type of recall  Memory best under recognition  Provides environmental support

23 TEST OF MEMORY  Explicit Memory  Conscious and deliberate retrieval of past events  Exam  Implicit Memory  Memory not involving consious recollection  Word stem completion  Complete the word ‘Ten___’

24 LEVELS OF PROCESSING  Craik and Lockhart (1972)  Attentional processes at learning determine what information is stored in long-term memory  Various levels of processing  Shallow processing  Physical analysis of stimuli  Deep or semantic processing  Analysis of meaning  Deep or semantic processing produce more elaboration, longer lasting and stronger memory traces than shallow processing

25 LEVELS OF PROCESSING  Two types of rehearsal  Maintenance rehearsal  Repeating information to remember it  Elaborative rehearsal  Involves semantic-meaning processing  Information which is sematically processed will be trasnfered to long term memory

26 ELABORATION  Craik and Tulving (1975)  Elaboration of processing is important  Aids LTM  The kind and amount of elaboration is critical for recall  Precise semantic encodings are better

27 DISTINCTIVENESS  Eysenck (1979)  Distinctive or unique memory traces are recalled more than non distinctive memory traces

28 THEORIES OF FORGETTING  Ebbinghause studied forgetting with himself being the only participant.  He learned and recalled a list of nonsense syllables which had no meaning over several trials.  Forgetting was very rapaid over the first hour after learning which slowed down thereafter.

29 REPRESSION  Freud argued that anxiety provoking material is often unable to gain access to conscious awareness, known as repression.  Adaptive function to maintain psychological well-being

30 INTERFERENCE THEORY  Dominant approach  Ability to remember currently learned information can be disrupted with previously learnt material or what we learn in the future.  Proactive Interference  Previous learning interferes  Retroactive Interference  Later learning disrupts earlier learning

31 CUE-DEPENDENT FORGETTING  Tulving (1974)-two reasons for forgetting  Trace-Dependent Forgetting  Information is no longer stored in memory  Cue-Dependent Forgetting  Information is stored in memory but cannot be accessed  Cue-dependent forgetting associated with external cues (categories) and internal cues (mood)  If the mood of retrieval is different from learning information will be blocked  The mood effect is stronger for positive than negative moods and for personal events

32 CONSOLIDATION  Is a process lasting for several hours or even days which fixes information in LTM.  ‘New memories are clear but fragile and old ones are faded but robust’ (Wixted, 2004, p.265).  Consolidation process for one memory can be distrupted by other memories, so better consolidation will take place during sleep than awake coz fewer memories are being formed.

33 CONSOLIDATION  Sleep will aid the consolidation period early in the retention interval, as, thats when memories are vulnerable to disruption.  Those who slept after learning remembered 81% than those who slept later 66%

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