2 THE MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY Sensory storeHolds sensory information for a very brief timeInformation not attended to is lostShort-term memory (STM)Holds information for limited time7-9 items capacityInformation not rehearsed is displacedOnce rehearsed information is transfered to LTMLong-term memory (LTM)Permenant memory storeUnlimited
4 SENSORY MEMORY Iconic store Echoic store Visual information is stored Auditory information is stored
5 SHORT-TERM STORE Example: Trying to remember a telephone number Limited capacity and fragile storageAny distraction causes forgettingThe recency effect:Last few items in a list are better remembered that the first or middle wordsThe primacy effect:First few words remembered better than the middle words
6 SHORT-TERM STORE-Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959)Task of remembering three letters while counting backwards by threes.The ability to remember the three letters declined to 50% after 6 secondsThis indicates that information is lost from short-term memory rapidly.This may be because counting backwards results in interference or diverts attention away from STM.
7 SHORT-TERM STORE: Rehearsal Rehearsal maintains information in short-term memory.Words that are shorter and can be rehearsed rapidly should remain in STMWords that take longer to reheasre will decay from STM.Some evidence supports this while others do not.Studies which do not support it cast doubt on the fact that short-term memory depends on rehearsal.
8 SHORT-TERM STORE: Forgetting Forgetting from STM:DecayProactive Interference (disruption of current learning by previous learnt material)Example: Trying to study cognitive psychology after studying for neuropsychology.Neuropsychology inteferes with cognitive psychology learning
9 WORKING MEMORY Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and Baddeley (1986) Central ExecutiveResembles attentionControlling unitLimited capacityPhonological LoopStores speech-based informationVisuo-spatial sketchpadStores visual-based informationEpisodic bufferIntegrates information from the Visuo-spatial sketchpad and Phonological loop. Controlled by the Central Executive
12 WORKING MEMORY: Assumptions If two tasks use the same componet, they cannot be performed successfully together.If two tasks use different components, it should be possible to perform them well together.
13 WORKING MEMORY PHONOLOGICAL LOOP Phonological Similarity EffectRecall of words is better when words sound different than when they sound the same.Example: Recall is better for words such as UP and ODD, than HE and KNEESpeech based reherasal within the phonological loop
14 WORKING MEMORY PHONOLOGICAL LOOP Word Length EffectBetter recall of shorter words than longer wordsTakes longer time to rehearse the longer words which causes greater levels of decay.
15 WORKING MEMORY PHONOLOGICAL LOOP a) A passive phonological store directly concerned with speech productionAuditory presentation of words gain direct access to the phonological storeb) An articulatory process linked to speech production that gives access to the phonological loopWords presented visually need to be articulated then gain access to the phonological store – access is therefore indirectWord length effect therefore is dependent on articulatory rehearsal
17 VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD Temporary storage and manipulation of spatial and visual informationTwo components:The visual cacheStores information about visual form and colourThe inner scribeDeals wıth spatial and movement informationRehearses information in the visual cacheTranfers information from the visual cache to the central executiveInvolved in the planning and execution of body and limb movements
18 CENTRAL EXECUTIVE Most important component of working memory Damage to the frontal lobes can cause impairements to the central executiveFunctions:Switching attention between tasksPlanning subgoals to achieve goalsSelective attention and inhibitionUpdating and checking the contents of working memoryCoding representations in working memory for time and place of appearance
19 CENTRAL EXECUTIVE Single or multiple central executive functions? Evidence favours the latterThree central executive functionsShifting attentionUpdating informationResponse inhibitionAll share common processes (e.g., attention) but also function independently.
20 EPISODIC BUFFERStores and intergrates information from both the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad
22 TESTS OF MEMORY Free recall Cued recall Recognition Hardest type of recallLeast environmental supportCued recallSecond hardest type of recallProvides some environmental supportRecognitionEasiest type of recallMemory best under recognitionProvides environmental support
23 TEST OF MEMORY Explicit Memory Implicit Memory Conscious and deliberate retrieval of past eventsExamImplicit MemoryMemory not involving consious recollectionWord stem completionComplete the word ‘Ten___’
24 LEVELS OF PROCESSING Craik and Lockhart (1972) Attentional processes at learning determine what information is stored in long-term memoryVarious levels of processingShallow processingPhysical analysis of stimuliDeep or semantic processingAnalysis of meaningDeep or semantic processing produce more elaboration, longer lasting and stronger memory traces than shallow processing
25 LEVELS OF PROCESSING Two types of rehearsal Maintenance rehearsal Repeating information to remember itElaborative rehearsalInvolves semantic-meaning processingInformation which is sematically processed will be trasnfered to long term memory
26 ELABORATION Craik and Tulving (1975) Elaboration of processing is importantAids LTMThe kind and amount of elaboration is critical for recallPrecise semantic encodings are better
27 DISTINCTIVENESS Eysenck (1979) Distinctive or unique memory traces are recalled more than non distinctive memory traces
28 THEORIES OF FORGETTING Ebbinghause studied forgetting with himself being the only participant.He learned and recalled a list of nonsense syllables which had no meaning over several trials.Forgetting was very rapaid over the first hour after learning which slowed down thereafter.
29 REPRESSIONFreud argued that anxiety provoking material is often unable to gain access to conscious awareness, known as repression.Adaptive function to maintain psychological well-being
30 INTERFERENCE THEORY Dominant approach Ability to remember currently learned information can be disrupted with previously learnt material or what we learn in the future.Proactive InterferencePrevious learning interferesRetroactive InterferenceLater learning disrupts earlier learning
31 CUE-DEPENDENT FORGETTING Tulving (1974)-two reasons for forgettingTrace-Dependent ForgettingInformation is no longer stored in memoryCue-Dependent ForgettingInformation is stored in memory but cannot be accessedCue-dependent forgetting associated with external cues (categories) and internal cues (mood)If the mood of retrieval is different from learning information will be blockedThe mood effect is stronger for positive than negative moods and for personal events
32 CONSOLIDATIONIs a process lasting for several hours or even days which fixes information in LTM.‘New memories are clear but fragile and old ones are faded but robust’ (Wixted, 2004, p.265).Consolidation process for one memory can be distrupted by other memories, so better consolidation will take place during sleep than awake coz fewer memories are being formed.
33 CONSOLIDATIONSleep will aid the consolidation period early in the retention interval, as, thats when memories are vulnerable to disruption.Those who slept after learning remembered 81% than those who slept later 66%