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Syllabus Elements of physical metallurgy of non-ferrous metals- classification, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of some important aluminium,

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Presentation on theme: "Syllabus Elements of physical metallurgy of non-ferrous metals- classification, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of some important aluminium,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Syllabus Elements of physical metallurgy of non-ferrous metals- classification, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of some important aluminium, titanium, copper and other important non-ferrous alloys. Heat treatment of some non-ferrous alloys and their applications

2 Non-Ferrous2 Non Ferrous Metals - Introduction Nonferrous metals and their alloys do not contain iron as a principle ingredient, although they may be present in small percentages.

3 Table 1: Some properties of commercially pure metals: Polmear (Eb153); Journal of Metals. 54 (2002) 42–48 and Steel World, 2 (1997) 59.

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6 Table 2: The European car in Total weight in 1985 was 815 kg, the increase being due to the introduction of enhanced passenger protection. The cost of accidents decreased from to million ECU’s from 1992 to 1995 respectively, in spite of an increase in the number of vehicles from 146 to 153 million (Source: OICA, Paris).

7 Materials used in the manufacture of a typical 2000 model year family sedan in North America. Journal of Metals, 54 (2002) 42–50.

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9 Bare-aluminium overhead-conductors 99% pure Al (1XXX) For a given weight, pure aluminium has the highest conductivity than any element. Specific conductivity twice that of Cu.

10 Non-Ferrous10 Non Ferrous Metals - Properties Nonferrous metals such as copper, brasses, bronzes, aluminum, magnesium, nickel, chromium, titanium, lead, tin, zinc, gold, silver, platinum, the refractory metals, and their alloys are used in a wide variety of applications; each requiring specific characteristics. Metals such as aluminum and magnesium, for example, tend to be high-strength, lightweight, and corrosion- resistant. They offer advantages over other metals in applications which depend on their unique properties.

11 Non-Ferrous11 Non Ferrous Metals - Introduction Aluminum, beryllium, and titanium are used in structural applications. Light metals such as lithium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium have important engineering applications. Nickel and lead have widespread applications as does copper which is often chosen for its high thermal and electrical conductivity. Cadmium, tin, and zinc are often used as coatings, electrical applications and for bearing surfaces. Cobalt and manganese are common alloying elements in steels. Gold, silver, and platinum, the precious metals, are used in electrical applications and jewelry.

12 Non-Ferrous12 Non Ferrous Metals - Introduction Refractory metals have melting temperatures above 3600 degrees Fahrenheit (2000 degrees Celsius). Some of these approach 6200 degrees Fahrenheit (3500 degrees Celsius). They include such metals as iridium, osmium and ruthenium in addition to chromium, columbium, molybdenum, niobium, rhenium, tantalum, tungsten, and vanadium. Find use in applications requiring high strength, hardness, and thermal stability. For example, tool coatings, heat shielding, and other related uses.

13 Non-Ferrous13 Non Ferrous Metals - Properties Refractory metals are chosen for their high heat resistance. They retain their properties at elevated temperatures.

14 Non-Ferrous Metallurgy (Non Ferrous) Research Present and Future what does industry need ? how can academia help ? what’s new (in aluminium !) ?

15 Non-Ferrous what does industry need ? composition + processing = attributes Product attributes include cost geometry properties aesthetics All attributes must be within specification otherwise you have no product !

16 Non-Ferrous what does industry need ? composition + processing = attributes alloy chemistry furnace charging melting furnace treatment grain refinement degassingfiltration launder practice metal transfer casting scalpingscheduling homogen- isation breakdown mill run-out table tandem mill reroll coiling cold rolling cold roll coiling slitting & post lube packingshipping

17 Non-Ferrous what does industry need ? composition + processing = attributes Through process modelling - (remember the list of attributes) the product is not just about properties (microstructure) industry has through process models - cost and geometry the models really do have to be through process local sub-optimisation of part of the process stream is highly undesirable tandem mill reroll coiling

18 Non-Ferrous how can academia help ? pre-competitive technology core technology enabling technology communication ?

19 Non-Ferrous how can academia help ? pre-competitive technology this should be where academia delivers should be natural partnerships with industry value is the knowledge base - not $ people expertise and experience

20 Non-Ferrous how can academia help ? core technology care needed for academia involvement could be natural partnerships with industry technology must remain within industry value can be economic if time-scale allows how does academe get the rewards ? how does industry protect it’s core competency ?

21 Non-Ferrous how can academia help ? enabling technology enabling technology for one sector is core for another potential competition between academia and industry academia must understand product liability value will be economic if the development is sound

22 Non-Ferrous22 Aluminum-I Third most abundant element in the earth's crust, behind silicon and oxygen. Its strength-to-weight ratio makes it attractive in structural applications as well as cast aluminum engine components, e.g. blocks, heads, and manifolds. Its electrical conductivity make it an excellent choice for electrical applications such as wiring and conductors. Its high reflectivity of infrared and visible radiation makes it desirable in headlights, light fixtures, and many insulations. It is also used as a paint pigment. Light Weight: Lightest available commercial metals with a density approximately one third that of steel or copper. Excellent Corrosion Resistance: due to the thin layer of aluminium oxide Strong: TS of pure Al is not high. But mech props can be improved greatly by alloying and tempering.

23 Non-Ferrous23 Aluminum-II Nontoxic, nonmagnetic and nonsparking. User for electrical shielding Pure aluminum has tensile strength 13,000 psi. Substential increae of strength is achievable by cold working or alloying. Have machinabillity or workability. Production Use

24 24 Aluminum-III PropertyValue Atomic Number13 Atomic Weight (g/mol)26.98 Valency3 Crystal Structurefcc Packing Density (%)74 Co-ordination Number12 Melting Point (ºC)660.2 Electrical Conductivity (m/Ω-mm 2 )37.67 Electrical Resistively at 20 ºC (μΩcm)2.69 Density (g/cc) Modulus of Elasticity (Gpa)68.3 Poisson Ratio0.34 Poisson’s Ratio0.35 UTS (60%elongation) (Psi)10,000 Hardness (Brinell, 500 kg,10mm)15

25 Applications: Aerospace & air travel: structural components of planes, fuel tanks in spacecraft Building and construction: panels, roofs, window frames… Packaging: beverage cans, foil… Transport: bikes, car engine parts, bus bodies… Electrical: e.g. overhead cables

26 Non-Ferrous what’s new in aluminium ? markets

27 Non-Ferrous what’s new in aluminium ? metallurgy ultra-fine grained alloys warm forming - wrought tempers thixoforming ordered microstructures surfaces ! 300 nm 40 nm

28 Non-Ferrous28 Copper, Brass, and Bronze It generally finds applications requiring high thermal and electrical conductivity. For example, the thermal conductivity of copper is almost ten times greater than ordinary steel. Therefore, it finds use as kitchen products, wiring and electrical applications, piping and tubing, and other such uses. Alloys of Copper and Zinc are termed brasses. Zinc is added to improve the strength and ductility of the alloy. Brass is used in decorative metal products, cartridge cases, piping and tubing, and many of the same application as copper.

29 Non-Ferrous29 Bronze Alloy of copper and any other metal. As with brasses, there are many formula for bronzes, depending on the application. Aluminum bronzes, tin bronzes, phosphor bronzes, nickel bronzes and silicon bronzes are all examples of varying alloys. The principle alloying element determines the nomenclature. Bronzes are used in applications such as bearings, decorative uses, and applications which require them not to spark when struck with another metal. This makes them useful in the transport and handling of items such as explosives, fuels, and flammable materials. Bronzes are often used in statues and can be seen to form the familiar green oxidized coating.

30 Non-Ferrous30 Magnesium Light material, lighter than aluminum Used as an alloying element in steels and in applications which require high strength-to-weight ratios, such as extension ladders, aircraft, space vehicles, power tools, and similar applications. Derived primarily from seawater Magnesium is a very active metal and, when burned, gives off an intense heat and light.

31 Non-Ferrous31 Chromium Used in decorative and corrosion-resistant coatings. It is a major alloying element in many steels, especially stainless steels. It is used to provide a tough, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant, decorative surface.

32 Non-Ferrous32 Nickel Used as a plating material. It polishes to a high luster. It offers a wide working temperature range. It is also used as an alloying element for other materials, such as steels and bronzes. Nickel is also used in magnets, heating elements, thermocouples, and rechargeable batteries. Nickel and nickel silver are used in jewelry and coins.

33 Non-Ferrous33 Gold, Silver, Platinum These are generally termed the precious metals due to their cost/value and use in coinage and jewelry. Gold, silver, and platinum are used as plating materials. They offer good conductivity and corrosion resistance. Gold and silver are too soft to be used in a pure form and are often alloyed with copper, nickel, or platinum to increase their strength. Gold and silver have been used for dental caps, crowns, and fillings.

34 Non-Ferrous34 Silver Silver finds application in photographic films and papers. At one time, it was used to plate mirrors. used for medicinal purposes. It is now used in the manufacture of photochromatic lenses. Photochromatic lenses darken when exposed to ultraviolet light. Silver is also used in brazing alloys and long-life batteries. Silver fulminate (Ag 2 C 2 N 2 O 2 ) is used as an explosive.

35 Non-Ferrous35 Platinum Platinum is found in a group of six metals extracted from nickel ores -- iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and platinum. Of these, platinum has the most widespread application. It is used in corrosion-resistant coatings, as a catalyst for chemical reactions, high-resistance furnace wire, and in catalytic converters. A large percentage of platinum is used in laboratory equipment, medical instruments, and fine jewelry. Platinum is more expensive per pound than gold.

36 Non-Ferrous36 Refractory Metals They find application where high temperature stability is required. For example, furnace components, high speed tools, temperature-measuring devices and components, aircraft components and space vehicle shields. These metals also find application in electrical devices such as capacitors and rectifiers.

37 Non-Ferrous37 Titanium Titanium is lightweight and strong. It is an important metal for the aerospace industry which requires high strength under extreme conditions. It is also used in the medical field for instruments and artificial joint replacements. Titanium is also used as a pigment in paints.

38 Non-Ferrous38 White Metals: Lead, Tin, and Zinc White metals include antimony, bismuth, cadmium, lead, tin, and zinc. Of these, lead, tin, and zinc are of primary interest. Lead has been used for centuries for plumbing and plumbing-related uses, such as solders, pipe, and fittings. It is easily formed with low heat, corrosion resistant, and ductile. One primary use of lead in the past was as a pigment in lead- based paints. Modern paints and fuels do not contain lead. Lead has been identified as a health hazard and found to be toxic to animals and humans. Lead is used in storage batteries where the battery plates contain high percentages of lead. Due to its high density, it is also used as radiation shielding.

39 Non-Ferrous39 Tin Tin is a major component of solders. It is also used as both an alloying element. Tin is a major alloy of many copper products. It is used to plate other metals due to its corrosion resistance.

40 Non-Ferrous40 Zinc Zinc is commonly used as a plating material for steels. This product is termed galvanized steel. It is the familiar grayish coating seen on products such as nails and sheets. It is also used in die castings (such as die-cast children's toys, carburetor bodies, and pump housings) and as an alloying element in nonferrous metals. Zinc oxide is used in paints, glass, cements, and medicines.

41 Non-Ferrous41 Misc. Other Alloys Finally, antimony, bismuth, and cadmium are included in "white" metals. Antimony is used in solders and as an alloying element in nonferrous metals. The same may be said for bismuth which has the lowest thermal conductivity of any metal except mercury. Cadmium is used as a plating material, as a component of rechargeable batteries (Nickel-cadmium batteries), and as a neutron absorber in control rods for nuclear power plants. Zirconium is also used in nuclear reactor structures and fuel shielding due to its low neutron absorption.


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