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Bachelor of Technology Mechanical

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Presentation on theme: "Bachelor of Technology Mechanical"— Presentation transcript:


2 Bachelor of Technology Mechanical
Industrial Materials UOG By: Jahangir Rana

3 Metals All metals belong to one of these two groups.

4 Ferrous Metals Non-Ferrous Metals

5 Ferrous metals Ferrous metals are metals, which are mainly made of iron with small amounts of other metals or elements added in order to give the correct properties. Almost all ferrous metals are magnetic and can be picked up with a magnet. These metals rust or oxidise if not treated as they contain iron.

6 Non-Ferrous metals Non-Ferrous metals are those metals, which do not contain iron. These metals are not magnetic and cannot be attracted by a magnet. Examples of these are aluminium, copper, lead, zinc and tin. These metals do not oxidise as they do not contain iron.

7 Ferrous Metals

8 Mild Steel Composition -0.15 to0.30% carbon
Properties- Tough, high tensile strength, ductile. Because of low carbon content it can not be hardened and tempered. It must be case hardened. Uses- girders, Plates, nuts and bolts, general purpose.

9 High Speed Steel Composition- medium carbon, tungsten, chromium and vanadium. Properties - Can be hardened and tempered. Can be brittle. Retains hardness at high temperatures. Uses- Cutting tools for lathes.

10 Stainless Steel Composition- 18% chromium, and 8% nickel added.
Properties - Corrosion resistant Uses- Kitchen draining boards. Pipes, cutlery, aircraft.

11 High Tensile Steel Composition- Low carbon steel, nickel, and chromium. Properties- Very strong and very tough. Uses- Gears, shafts, engine parts.

12 High Carbon Steel Composition- 0.70% to 1.40% carbon.
Properties- The hardest of the carbon steels. Less ductile, tough and malleable. Uses- Chisels, hammers, drills, files, lathe tools, taps and dies

13 Medium Carbon Steels Composition- 0.30% to 0.70% carbon.
Properties- Stronger and harder than mild steels. Less ductile, tough and malleable. Uses- Metal ropes, wire, garden tools, springs.

14 Cast Iron Composition- Remelted pig iron with small amounts of scrap steel. Properties- Hard, brittle, strong, cheap, self-lubricating. White cast iron, grey cast iron, malleable cast iron. Uses- Heavy crushing machinery. Car cylinder blocks, vices, machine tool parts, brake drums, machine handle and gear wheels, plumbing fitments

15 Non-Ferrous Metals

16 Aluminum Composition- Pure Metal
Properties- Grayish-White, soft, malleable, conductive to heat and electricity, It is corrosion resistant. It can be welded but this is difficult. Needs special processes Uses- Aircraft, boats, window frames, saucepans, packaging and insulation, pistons and cranks

17 Aluminum alloys Composition- Aluminum +4% Copper+1%Manganese
Properties- Ductile, Malleable, Work Hardens Uses- Aircraft and vehicle parts

18 Copper Composition- Pure metal Copper+1%Manganese
Properties- Red, tough, ductile, High electrical conductor, corrosion resistant, Can work hard or cold. Needs frequent annealing Uses- Electrical wire, cables and conductors, water and central heating pipes and cylinders. Printed circuit boards, roofs

19 Brass Composition- 65% copper +35%zinc
Properties- Very corrosive, yellow in colour, tarnishes very easily. Harder than copper. Good electrical conductor Uses- Castings, ornaments, valves, forgings

20 Lead Composition- Pure metal
Properties- The heaviest common metal. Soft, malleable, bright and shiny when new but quickly oxidizes to a dull grey. Resistant to corrosion. Uses- Protection against X-Ray machines. Paints, roof coverings, flashings

21 Zinc Composition- Pure metal
Properties- A layer of oxide protects it from corrosion, bluish-white, easily worked Uses- Makes brass. Coating for steel galvanized corrugated iron roofing, tanks, buckets, rust-proof paints

22 Tin Composition- Pure metal
Properties- White and soft, corrosion resistant Uses- Tinplate, making bronze

23 Gilding metal Composition- 85% copper+15% zinc
Properties- Corrosion resistant, golden color, enamels well Uses- Beaten metalwork, jewelry

24 All metals fall into two categories. Pure metals Alloys.
Pure metals and alloys All metals fall into two categories. Pure metals Alloys.

25 A pure metal consists of a single element, which means that it is a metal only having one type of atom in it. The most commonly used pure metals are Aluminium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Silver and Gold.

26 An Alloy is a mixture of two or more pure elements
An Alloy is a mixture of two or more pure elements. Pure metals sometimes lack certain required properties. To create these properties a number of these pure metals are combined together.

27 Pure aluminium is rarely used because it is too soft
Pure aluminium is rarely used because it is too soft. It is normally mixed with other metals, which produce aluminium alloys that are even stronger than mild steel, are resistant to corrosion but still retain the lightness of aluminium.

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