5 Ferrous metalsFerrous metals are metals, which are mainly made of iron with small amounts of other metals or elements added in order to give the correct properties. Almost all ferrous metals are magnetic and can be picked up with a magnet. These metals rust or oxidise if not treated as they contain iron.
6 Non-Ferrous metalsNon-Ferrous metals are those metals, which do not contain iron. These metals are not magnetic and cannot be attracted by a magnet. Examples of these are aluminium, copper, lead, zinc and tin. These metals do not oxidise as they do not contain iron.
8 Mild Steel Composition -0.15 to0.30% carbon Properties- Tough, high tensile strength, ductile. Because of low carbon content it can not be hardened and tempered. It must be case hardened.Uses- girders, Plates, nuts and bolts, general purpose.
9 High Speed SteelComposition- medium carbon, tungsten, chromium and vanadium.Properties - Can be hardened and tempered. Can be brittle. Retains hardness at high temperatures.Uses- Cutting tools for lathes.
11 High Tensile SteelComposition- Low carbon steel, nickel, and chromium.Properties- Very strong and very tough.Uses- Gears, shafts, engine parts.
12 High Carbon Steel Composition- 0.70% to 1.40% carbon. Properties- The hardest of the carbon steels. Less ductile, tough and malleable.Uses- Chisels, hammers, drills, files, lathe tools, taps and dies
13 Medium Carbon Steels Composition- 0.30% to 0.70% carbon. Properties- Stronger and harder than mild steels. Less ductile, tough and malleable.Uses- Metal ropes, wire, garden tools, springs.
14 Cast IronComposition- Remelted pig iron with small amounts of scrap steel.Properties- Hard, brittle, strong, cheap, self-lubricating.White cast iron, grey cast iron, malleable cast iron.Uses- Heavy crushing machinery. Car cylinder blocks, vices, machine tool parts, brake drums, machine handle and gear wheels, plumbing fitments
16 Aluminum Composition- Pure Metal Properties- Grayish-White, soft, malleable, conductive to heat and electricity, It is corrosion resistant. It can be welded but this is difficult. Needs special processesUses- Aircraft, boats, window frames, saucepans, packaging and insulation, pistons and cranks
17 Aluminum alloys Composition- Aluminum +4% Copper+1%Manganese Properties- Ductile, Malleable, Work HardensUses- Aircraft and vehicle parts
18 Copper Composition- Pure metal Copper+1%Manganese Properties- Red, tough, ductile, High electrical conductor, corrosion resistant, Can work hard or cold. Needs frequent annealingUses- Electrical wire, cables and conductors, water and central heating pipes and cylinders. Printed circuit boards, roofs
19 Brass Composition- 65% copper +35%zinc Properties- Very corrosive, yellow in colour, tarnishes very easily. Harder than copper. Good electrical conductorUses- Castings, ornaments, valves, forgings
20 Lead Composition- Pure metal Properties- The heaviest common metal. Soft, malleable, bright and shiny when new but quickly oxidizes to a dull grey. Resistant to corrosion.Uses- Protection against X-Ray machines. Paints, roof coverings, flashings
21 Zinc Composition- Pure metal Properties- A layer of oxide protects it from corrosion, bluish-white, easily workedUses- Makes brass. Coating for steel galvanized corrugated iron roofing, tanks, buckets, rust-proof paints
22 Tin Composition- Pure metal Properties- White and soft, corrosion resistantUses- Tinplate, making bronze
23 Gilding metal Composition- 85% copper+15% zinc Properties- Corrosion resistant, golden color, enamels wellUses- Beaten metalwork, jewelry
24 All metals fall into two categories. Pure metals Alloys. Pure metals and alloysAll metals fall into two categories.Pure metalsAlloys.
25 A pure metal consists of a single element, which means that it is a metal only having one type of atom in it. The most commonly used pure metals areAluminium, Copper,Iron, Lead,Zinc, Tin,Silver and Gold.
26 An Alloy is a mixture of two or more pure elements An Alloy is a mixture of two or more pure elements. Pure metals sometimes lack certain required properties. To create these properties a number of these pure metals are combined together.
27 Pure aluminium is rarely used because it is too soft Pure aluminium is rarely used because it is too soft. It is normally mixed with other metals, which produce aluminium alloys that are even stronger than mild steel, are resistant to corrosion but still retain the lightness of aluminium.