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Macromolecules. Large molecules (macromolecules) found in all living things: 1) Carbohydrates 2) Lipids 3) Proteins 4) Nucleic Acids.

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules. Large molecules (macromolecules) found in all living things: 1) Carbohydrates 2) Lipids 3) Proteins 4) Nucleic Acids."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules

2 Large molecules (macromolecules) found in all living things: 1) Carbohydrates 2) Lipids 3) Proteins 4) Nucleic Acids

3 Macromolecules Macromolecules are made up of small molecules called monomers. –Monomers are individual subunits or parts. (Think of them as legos, each individual lego is a monomer) –Polymers are made of many monomers. (A whole bunch of individual legos put together make up something much bigger)

4 Macromolecules Four main types of macromolecules are found in living things. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

5 Macromolecules The 3 Asian Brothers: CHO (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) –Carbohydrates  Sugars & Starches –Lipids  Fats & Oils CHON (Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen) –A Chain of Amino Acids make up a protein CHONP (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus) –Nucleic Acids include DNA and RNA

6 Macromolecules Macromolecule #1: Carbohydrates 1. Carbohydrates provide QUICK energy –Glucose (aka sugar) is the monomer (lego) of carbohydrates.

7 Macromolecules Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells. Some carbohydrates provide structure to the cell while other carbs store energy. Polymer (starch) Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that stores energy in PLANTS. Polymer (cellulose) Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that provides a rigid structure to the cell walls in PLANT CELLS. monomer Glycogen is a polymer of glucose monomers that stores energy in ANIMALS.

8 Macromolecules Carbohydrates  Sugars! Monosaccharide means 1 sugar Disaccharide means 2 sugars Polysaccharide means many sugars Hydroxyl group

9 Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

10 Macromolecules Macromolecule #2: 2. Lipids store LONG TERM energy –They don’t dissolve in water (immiscible) –Examples of lipid: oils, fats, steroids such as cholesterol –Monomer: Glycerol and each Fatty Acid Triglyceride= 3 fatty acid chains + glycerol (monomer of lipid)

11 Macromolecules Four main types of macromolecules are found in living things. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

12 Macromolecules Macromolecule #3: 3.Proteins provide structure (skin, nails, hair, etc) and function (enzymes) –Proteins are made up of monomers (legos) called amino acids. –Chain of amino acids for one protein

13 Macromolecules There are 20 different Amino Acids (monomers) and they link together to produce a protein (macromolecule). Chain of Amino Acids Chain of Amino acids must be folded properly in order to function.

14 Macromolecules Four main types of macromolecules are found in living things. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

15 Macromolecules Macromolecule #4: 4. Nucleic Acids carry genetic information –Examples of nucleic acid: DNA, RNA

16 Macromolecules –Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. A phosphate group nitrogen-containing molecule, called a base deoxyribose (sugar) Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides.

17 Macromolecules Double stranded DNA stores genetic information. Nucleic acids are polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides. Single stranded RNA is read and translated into proteins. DNA RNA Transcribed into

18 Macromolecules Complete the following chart for macromolecules on Page 28: Polymer (macromolecule) MonomerStructure (picture) of the monomer 1.Carbohydrate 2. Lipid 3. Protein 4. Nucleic Acid

19 Macromolecules Write Around

20 Macromolecules Instructions You will be assigned into groups of 3 Each group will be given poster paper with a given macromolecule. You will be working with your classmates to draw pictures and words that describe your macromolecule. (20 minutes)

21 Macromolecules Instructions After your time is up, your group will rotate around the room and look at other groups’ posters. (5 minutes each poster) You will be able to add things onto other groups’ posters After the rotation is complete, we will have the groups present. RULES: – You must work together in your groups. – You will not rotate until your teacher gives you the signal to do so – Be respectful of other groups’ posters.


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