Presentation on theme: "A spider web can stop an insict from flying"— Presentation transcript:
1A spider web can stop an insict from flying A spider web can stop an insict from flying. A single thread of spider silk can hold the weight of a spider that is large in size. Scientists have marveled that a material as lightweight as spider silk can be so strong. The silk that spiders use to form their webs is made up of proteins called fibroin. Scientists have searched for ways to use this protein to make building materials that are strong and lightweight like spider sink. This can be used to solve problems in the industrial world.
2Large molecules (macromolecules) found in all living things: 1) Carbohydrates2) Lipids3) Proteins4) Nucleic Acids
3Macromolecules are made up of small molecules called monomers. Monomers are individual subunits or parts. (Think of them as legos, each individual lego is a monomer)Polymers are made of many monomers. (A whole bunch of individual legos put together make up something much bigger)
4Four main types of macromolecules are found in living things. CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
5The 3 Asian Brothers:CHO (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen)Carbohydrates Sugars & StarchesLipids Fats & OilsCHON (Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen)A Chain of Amino Acids make up a proteinCHONP (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus)Nucleic Acids include DNA and RNA
6Macromolecule #1: Carbohydrates 1. Carbohydrates provide QUICK energyGlucose (aka sugar) is the monomer (lego) of carbohydrates.
7Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells. Some carbohydrates provide structure to the cell while other carbs store energy.Glycogen is a polymer of glucose monomers that stores energy in ANIMALS.Polymer (starch)Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that stores energy in PLANTS.Polymer (cellulose)Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that provides a rigid structure to the cell walls in PLANT CELLS.monomerGlycogen is often stored is an energy-storing carb found in animals. Often glycogen is stored in muscle tissue as an energy source.Raw potato is difficult to digest b/c the starch is tightly packed, cooking bursts that tightness, which can be attacked by our digestive juices. Inside our stomachs is HCl.During digestion, starch breaks down into another carbs called glucose, which can be carried by the bloodstream. The carb you come into contact with the most is cellulose, found in paper, which comes from wood. Cellulose is what most plants use to give them thei rough structure- leaves, stems, rooms, all made of cellulose.
8Carbohydrates Sugars! Monosaccharide means 1 sugarDisaccharide means 2 sugarsPolysaccharide means many sugarsHydroxyl groupTo a cook, sugar is the dissacharide sugar. The cyclic sugar is very important for the human body because it is the chemical that the bloodstream uses to carry energy to every cell in the body. The glucose moleucle has a ring made of six atoms, five carbons and one oxygen. The sixth carbon is part of the CH2OH side chain. There are four hydroxyl (OH) groups.
102. Lipids store LONG TERM energy Macromolecule #2:2. Lipids store LONG TERM energyThey don’t dissolve in water (immiscible)Examples of lipid: oils, fats, steroids such as cholesterolMonomer: Glycerol and each Fatty AcidTriglyceride= 3 fatty acid chains + glycerol (monomer of lipid)
11Four main types of macromolecules are found in living things. CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
12Macromolecule #3:Proteins provide structure (skin, nails, hair, etc) and function (enzymes)Proteins are made up of monomers (legos) called amino acids.Chain of amino acids for one proteinOur bodies are mostly made out of proteins. The most abundant protein in your body is called collagen, which is found in skin and bones. Your hair is made of proteins called keratin. Proteins in muscles allow your muscles to contract, making body movement possible. Fibroin, the protein found in spider webs!
13There are 20 different Amino Acids (monomers) and they link together to produce a protein (macromolecule).ALL proteins are made of amino acids. Each protein is different or has different properties b/c it has a different combination of amino acids within its structure.Chain of Amino AcidsProteinChain of Amino acids must be folded properly in order to function.
14Four main types of macromolecules are found in living things. CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
154. Nucleic Acids carry genetic information Macromolecule #4:4. Nucleic Acids carry genetic informationExamples of nucleic acid: DNA, RNAYou are probably like one or both of our parents in both personality and physical appearance. Some traits may be due to the environment you grew up in, but many traits you inherited from your parents. All the information that codes for proteins that helps build your body is stored in compounds called nucleic acids.
16Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.A phosphate groupnitrogen-containing molecule, called a basedeoxyribose (sugar)
17Nucleic acids are polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides. DNADouble stranded DNA stores genetic information.Transcribed intoRNASingle stranded RNA is read and translated into proteins.
18Complete the following chart for macromolecules on Page 28: Polymer (macromolecule)MonomerStructure (picture) of the monomerCarbohydrate2. Lipid3. Protein4. Nucleic Acid
20Instructions You will be assigned into groups of 3 Each group will be given poster paper with a given macromolecule.You will be working with your classmates to draw pictures and words that describe your macromolecule. (20 minutes)
21InstructionsAfter your time is up, your group will rotate around the room and look at other groups’ posters. (5 minutes each poster)You will be able to add things onto other groups’ postersAfter the rotation is complete, we will have the groups present.RULES:You must work together in your groups.You will not rotate until your teacher gives you the signal to do soBe respectful of other groups’ posters.