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(c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 1 School District Budgeting School Finance: A Policy Perspective, 4e Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "(c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 1 School District Budgeting School Finance: A Policy Perspective, 4e Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

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2 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 1 School District Budgeting School Finance: A Policy Perspective, 4e Chapter 8

3 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 2 Class Outline Defining Budgets Approaches to Budgeting Budget Planning and Preparation Budget Adoption and Appropriation Budget Implementation and Evaluation Case Studies

4 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 3 What is a Budget? Budget (from French bougette, purse) generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving and spending.French Purpose is to: Provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures i.e. construct a model of how our enterprise might perform financially speaking if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out. Enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast

5 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 4 What is a Budget? A document which specifies the planned expenditures and anticipated revenues of a school district in a given fiscal year, along with other data and information relating the fiscal elements to the educational philosophy, programs, and needs of the district. Hartman (1988)

6 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 5 What is a Budget? Policy Document Financial Plan Operations guide Communications Guide Bennett, Hall and Berg (2006)

7 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 6 Budget (Bermuda) Triangle

8 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 7 Why Do We Need Budgets? How do Public Budgets Differ from Private Company Budgets? –Why? –Should They? What does a Budget Tell Us? Why do we Care?

9 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 8 Four Functions of a Budget Policy Document Financial Plan Operations Guide Communications Tool

10 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 9 Four Functions of a Budget Policy Document –Reflects philosophy of school committee, administration and community –Emphasizes that philosophy in terms of resources Financial Plan –Past –Present –Future

11 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 10 Four Functions of a Budget Operations Guide –Fiscal accountability and TRANSPARENCY –Program accountability –Personnel accountability Communications Tool –Identifies and describes the strengths and challenges of education program and services with the community –Shows how educational dollars are spent –Identifies the districts programs and priorities

12 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 11 Features of Classical Budgets Unity Regularity Clarity Balance Publicity Operational Adequacy p. 237 O & P

13 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 12 Class Activity for Saturday Jan 23, 2009 Groups review budgets Consider the six features of Classical budgets Determine if and how well budgets meet each of the six characteristics Discuss strengths and weaknesses identified in the budgets

14 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 13 Budget Philosophy and Formats Line Item Budgeting (Obj-function) Sample Budget Template CDC Program Budgeting Zero Based Budgeting Windsor Ontario Hospital

15 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 14

16 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 15 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model Determine school characteristics –Number of students by grade –Percent free and reduced price lunch eligible (or poverty measure used in your state) –Percent English Language Learners (ELL) –Percent of students with disabilities that qualify for special education services

17 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 16 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model Example using an Elementary School Personnel Resources –Core teachers K-3 1: :25 –Specialist 20% of core teachers –Instructional facilitators/coaches (1 per 200 students) –Tutors for struggling students (1 per 100 poverty students)

18 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 17 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model Personnel Resources (continued) –Teachers for ELL (1 for every 100 ELL students) –Extended day (1/2 poverty enrollment at ratio of 1:15 at 0.25 FTE) –Summer School (1/2 poverty enrollment at ratio of 1:15 at 0.25 FTE)

19 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 18 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model School Elements –Students with mild and/or learning disabilities (3 additional professional teacher positions per 432 students) –Students with severe disabilities (100 percent state reimbursement minus Federal funds) –Gifted Students ($25 per student based on total school enrollment

20 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 19 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model School Elements (continued) –Pupil support staff (1 for every 100 poverty students) –Non-instructional aides (2 for every 432 students) –Librarian/medial specialist (1.0) –Principal (1.0) –School clerical staff (1 secretary [12 mo.] one clerical [9 mo.])

21 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 20 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model School Elements (continued) Professional development –Included in above estimates Facilitators/coaches 10 summer days for planning and preparation –$100 per pupil for other PD expenses such as trainers, travel, conferences, etc.

22 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 21 School Site Budgets Using the Evidence Based Adequacy Model School Elements (continued) –Technology -- $250 per student –Instructional materials -- $140 per student –Student activities -- $200 per student

23 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 22 Contents of a Typical Budget Introduction Financial Summary Information Expenditures Revenues Personnel and Position Counts (FTEs) Explanation of Expenditure Calculations

24 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 23 ASBO MBA Budge Format and Elements Introductory Section Organizational Section Financial Section Information Section

25 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 24 Budget Process Development of Budget Guidelines –Superintendents message –Budget Calendar –Guidelines for participation –Budget forms –Information on structure –Other information

26 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 25 Budget Process Budget Preparation –Enrollment History and Forecasting Comparative projection Extrapolation Ratio and Correlation Methods Component Analysis Build out rates Ultimate population analysis

27 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 26 Budget Process Estimating Personnel Needs –Certified Staff Teachers Other Certificated, Non-Admin. Staff Site Administrators Central Office Administrators –Classified Staff

28 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 27 Budget Process Estimating Expenditures –Identify Specific Programs and Services Around Which Budget is to be Constructed –Specify Resources (Time, People and Materials) Needed to Implement Tasks Essential to Each Program –Estimate the Costs of the Resources Needed for Implementation

29 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 28 Budget Process Expenditures –Object –Function –Program

30 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 29 Budget Process Estimation of Revenue –Property Taxes –State Revenue –Federal Revenue –Other Sources of Revenue Budget Modification Budget Adoption

31 (c) 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies 30 Distribution of Funds to School Sites Staff –Total dollar budget –Personnel allocations based on staffing ratios Non-staff (site or district?) –Technology –Transportation –Buildings and Grounds -Maintenance and operations –Risk management –Food services –Purchasing


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