Presentation on theme: "NUTRITION : is the incorporation of food,relative to body´s dietary needs. We consider a good nutrition if it is a sufficient and balanced diet combined."— Presentation transcript:
NUTRITION : is the incorporation of food,relative to body´s dietary needs. We consider a good nutrition if it is a sufficient and balanced diet combined with regular exercise NUTRIENTS: important chemical substances contained in foods that carry out several vital functions : carbohydrates, lipids, water, proteins, mineral salts and vitamins. FOOD : substances which we ingest: bread, vegetables, meat, fish, fruit,…
NUTRITIONFEEDINGMETABOLISMEXCRETION Nutrition can be divided into three stages The objective of feeding is to obtain inmediate principles from food The metabolism is the process which makes possible that nutrients provide the necessary energy to our organism. By means of excretion the organism eliminates waste substances to maintain the composition of the blood.
IMMEDIATE PRINCIPLES NUTRIENTS ORGANIC Formed by carbon chains INORGANIC Do not contain carbon chains
ORGANIC * Carbohydrates * Lipids * Proteins * Vitamins INORGANIC * Mineral salts * Water
CARBOHYDRATES Chemical composition C, H and O. Present in pasta, sugar, rice, bread, potato……… They are the suppliers of choice to be used as fuel, during and after heavy exercise. The energy which 1g provides = 4 kcal
1) Quick sugars: non suitable for diabetics. Energetic function mainly: honey, sugar, fruit juice,… Monosacharides : glucose Disacharides : lactose and maltose 2) Slow sugars : May be consumed by diabetics. Cereals, vegetables, legume,… Polysaccarides
Energetic reserve *Starch (in vegetal food) *Glycogen (animal food) Polysaccharides Two functions Structural *Cellulose (dietetic fibre ) in vegetal food *Chitin (in animals)
LIPIDS CC,H,O,P,S….. in their chemical composition FFoods rich in lipids are : oil,butter,fat and marbling. GGroup of very varied substances, insoluble in water. 11g = 9 Kcal
. GROUP OF LIPIDS Fats Very energetic molecules. (Functions : protective, heat isulation and long-term energetic reservoir) Saturated Unsaturated animal origin vegetal origin and frequently liquid Waxes Waterproof and protective function (ear) Steroids Cholesterol, hormones (testosterone) vitamin D Phospholipids Structural function in cellular membranes Terpenes Vitamin A
PROTEINS Chemical composition : C,H,O, and N are essential. The most important structural molecules 1g = 4 Kcal
Formed by the binding of other more simple molecules, called aminoacids (of which exist 20 different ones. Obtained from protein food 12 in the 20 existing aminoacids, can be produced out of other aminoacids The other 8 remaining aminoacids, essential aminoacids, must be incorporated through food in a sufficient amount
Substances of very varied chemical composition,essential for the correct body functioning, of which very small quantities are needed. Human organism can't manufacture them and he must use outside sources Without them our body could not perform metabolic functions Substances of very varied chemical composition,essential for the correct body functioning, of which very small quantities are needed. Human organism can't manufacture them and he must use outside sources Without them our body could not perform metabolic functions Vitamins
Their absence cause diverse disorders and illnesses. Vitamins are easily destroyed by heat. Therefore, they are only found in little or undercooked food. Light, and even the oxygen of air, can destroy them. ( Important to consume fresh food, not stored for a long time). From exogenous origin (except for vitamin K)
Classes Water soluble They are dissolved in water (An excess is eliminated through the urine or faeces, such as vitamin C and complex B. Liposolubles Insoluble in water (accumulated in animals)
Feeding we must take to any physical exercise : *A diet with a Kcal consume under 1200 is considered dangerous because of an important deficiency of nutrients. *The diets of adult humans contain between 1000 and 5000 kilocalories per day.
After an intense physical exercise we should have about 50 to 100 grams of Carbohydrates (pasta, rice, bread, potatoes,...). So that we will get 200 - 400 Kcal. -Children between: 1.200 and 2.000 kcal a day. - Adolescents between: 2.000 and 3.000 kcal a day. - Adult women between: 1.800 and 2.200 kcal a day. - Adult men between: 2.200 and 2.700 kcal each day.