2Smart muscle training overview Training movement, not muscleEfficiencyAthlete developmentTraining principlesTraining programsRecovery strategiesResearch
3Traditional training Failing to optimize performance Does not simulate performance on fieldCreates false sense of confidenceMuscle isolationMachine basedAerobic trainingLinear speed training
4Transfer training or Simulated training Encourages athlete to think and reactEncourages athlete to analyze and correct their own performanceExercises are related to the athlete’s sporting demandsPromotes realistic sense of confidence
5The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance The experimental group which trained with the load that maximized mechanical power achieved the best overall results in enhancing dynamic athletic performance recording statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements on most test items and producing statistically superior results to the two other training modalities on the jumping and isokinetic tests.WILSON, GREG J.; NEWTON, ROBERT U.; MURPHY, ARON J.; HUMPHRIES, BRENDAN J.
7Concepts cont. Muscle reactivity Joint stability Rotary core power DecelerationWhole body power initiationMulti joint strengthMulti directional movement skillsWhole body reaction skills
8Terminology Strength is the maximal force a muscle group can generate Power is the rate of performing workPower = force x distance / timeMuscular endurance is the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions or a single static contractionAerobic Power: The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the involvement and availability of oxygenAnaerobic Power: The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without the involvement of oxygen
9Athlete development Achieve goals in sport and life Holistic approach Treatment and training of the person as a whole, taking into account mental + social factors
112. Mental training program Sport psychologistPST programVisualizationGoal settingSelf talkAnxiety managementPerformance evaluation
12Psychological Skills Training (PST) Systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, or increasing enjoyment/satisfactionIntegrates many psychological skills and methodsRequires training over timeIndividualized
13Coaching principlesCreate a healthy climate that is enjoyable and focused on mastering skillsUtilize a positive approach to coaching that involves positive reinforcement, encouragement, and appropriate instructionEstablish norms that emphasize athletes’ obligations to help and support one another.Include athletes in decision-making roles regarding team rules and complianceEngage in self-monitoring and assessment in order to focus on positive coaching behaviour
153. Sports nutrition Fuel body for performance Nutritional plan E.g. Carbohydrate loadingPre-post training/ competitionAthletes diet:The precompetition meal should be taken no less than 2 h before competition and should be low in fat and high in carbohydrateCarbohydrate loading increases muscle glycogen contentAfter endurance competition or training, it is important to consume carbohydrate to replace glycogen used during activity
16Influence of Dietary Carbohydrate (CHO) on Muscle Glycogen Stores During Repeated Days of Training
17Relationship Between Preexercise Muscle Glycogen Content and Exercise Time to Exhaustion CHO during exercise:Performance improves when athletes are given CHO feedings during exercise lasting 1-4 hPossible mechanisms include:Preservation of liver glycogenPromotion of glycogen synthesis during exerciseIncreased reliance on blood glucose for energy late in the exercise boutEnhanced central nervous system functionConsumption after exercise:Improves glycogen resynthesis ratesMost effective when given during the first two hours of recoveryMay be enhanced by the addition of protein
18Example nutritional plan: golf Breakfast: Scrambled eggs, 500 mL water, piece of fruit, yogurtDuring warm-up (stretching, range, putting and chipping time before you tee-off): Piece of fruit, water During the first 6 holes: Banana, water or a mix of Gatorade and water if it is hotDuring the middle 6 holes: Half of a sandwich, water During the last 6 holes: granola bar or fruit, water (or Gatorade if getting tired)After the round and before post-round practice at the range / short game area: nuts, water, 2ndhalf sandwich, bananaMy recovery plan (how will you refuel to get ready for the next day’s game?May include more than just nutrition, e.g. stretching, hot/cold showers, massage, etc…): hot shower, stretching, relax watching television eat spaghetti with tomato sauce and veggies / protein (i.e. chicken) lots of water
20Training principles 1. individuality Individualizing drills Sport demandsPositionFitness goalsPast/current injuriesMuscle imbalancesPostural breakdownsUNIQUE AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATION
21Training principles 2. Specificity 3. Reversibility Sport specific To gain benefit, you must overload progressively for that benefit.Strength, power, endurance, throwing, kicking, jumping, high speed, low speed. Train for what you need!3. ReversibilityIf you don’t use it, you’ll lose itMaintenance program
22Training principles 4. Progressive overload Muscles must work against a load that is greater than normal to improve.Work body harder than normal, progress to higher levelsIncludes: musculoskeletal, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory systems
23Training principles 5. Hard/ Easy 6. Periodization (1 year) 2 days hard training should be followed by 1 day easy training6. Periodization (1 year)12 w macrocycle4w meso cycle1w micro cycle
26Training terminologyUnder training: type of training an athlete would undertake between competitive seasons or during active restAcute overload: the athlete is stressing the body to the extent necessary to improve physiological function and performanceOverreaching: brief period of heavy overload without adequate recoveryOvertraining: point at which an athlete experiences physiological maladaptations and chronic performance decrements
28OvertrainingUnexplained decline in performance and physiological functionCan occur with each of the major forms of trainingCannot be remedied by a few days of reduced training, rest, or dietary manipulationPossible causes:Periods of excessive training or emotional stressSymptoms similar to clinical depression
29Improvement in Performance With Acute Overload and Overreaching (a) in Contrast to the Pattern Seen With Overtraining (b)
30Overtraining syndrome: symptoms Sense of a loss in muscular strength, coordination, and work capacityChange in appetiteBody weight lossSleep disturbancesIrritability, restlessness, excitability, anxiousnessLoss of motivation and vigorLack of mental concentrationFeelings of depressionLack of appreciation for things normally enjoyable
31Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Overtraining Sympathetic OvertrainingIncreased resting heart rateIncreased blood pressureLoss of appetiteDecreased body massSleep disturbancesEmotional instabilityElevated basal metabolic rateParasympathetic OvertrainingEarly onset of fatigueDecreased resting heart rateRapid heart rate recovery after exerciseDecreased resting blood pressure
32Treatment and prevention overtraining Marked reduction in training intensity or complete restCounselingPreventionFollow periodization training proceduresPay attention to carbohydrate intake
33Resistance training programs Low-repetition, high-resistance training enhances strength developmentHigh-repetition, low-resistance training optimizes muscular endurancePeriodization is important to prevent overtraining and burnoutA typical periodization cycle has 4 active phases, each emphasizing a different muscular fitness component, plus an active recovery
34Resistance training programs Resistance training can use static or dynamic contractionsEccentric training appears to be essential to maximizing hypertrophyElectrical stimulation can be successfully used in rehabilitating athletes
35Tapering for key performance Decreasing training intensity and volume before a competition increases strength, power, and performance capacityOptimal duration of the taper is 4-28 days or longer and is dependent on the sport, event, and the athlete’s needsMuscular strength increases significantly during taperingAllows time for muscles to be repaired from damage incurred during intense training and for energy stores to be restored
36Tapering cont.Less training is needed to maintain previous gains than was originally needed to attain them, so tapering does not decrease conditioningPerformance improves by an average of ~3% with proper tapering
37Case study: tapering for golf Changing intensity before major eventsrelated practice must be of competition quality –every ball contact counts, and realistic game situations should be recreated in practice. This is especially important in the 10 days before championships.In several well-designed studies reviewed in Mujika (2003), researchers have shown that only a high-intensity, low-volume taper design was effective in maintaining or improving total blood volume, blood cell volumes, citrate synthase activity (an aerobic enzyme), muscle glycogen concentrations, muscle strength, and time to fatigue in groups of elite athletes. •Thus, we recommend that coaches and athletes maintain training intensity during taper to avoid detraining. It is through the reductions in the other variables (volume, frequency, and duration) that recovery and super-compensation should be achieved.
38Tapering for golf Changing volume golf training and practiced should be decreased slightly (by 10-15%) and cardio training should be decreased significantly (50% or more), and strength training should be decreased significantly (50% and minimal muscle stress during training).Reductions of 50-70% in total training volume have been reported to maintain or improve training- induced adaptations in elite athletes (Martin, 1993; McConnell 1994). Other studies have reported benefits with reductions of up to 85% in total training volume (Mujika, 2000). •Reductions in total training volume for golfers should come mostly from “peripheral” training such as extra cardio sessions, decreasing the amount of strength training that is taking place, or any other non-golf related training.
39Tapering for golf Changing frequency reduce training frequency to no less than 80% of pre-taper values to avoid detraining and “loss of feel”, especially in technique dependent sports like golf.Reducing the frequency of practice (i.e. # of workouts / week) has been shown to improve performance more than maintaining pre-taper frequencies (Johns et al., 1992). •This reduction in training frequency must be balanced with the need to practice optimal motor patterns and technique.
40Final thoughts training program Always have a plan.All programs should be challenging: if the training becomes too easy the body will adapt very quickly and progress will stagnate.Most injuries occur when there is a large change in training load or intensity: always progressively add training elements that work with the training plan.Consistency is the key: without a consistent approach to training, regularity of session, effort during sessions and recovery after sessions the chance of high performance results is very limited.
41Exercise selectionExercises and training protocols should be selected with the specific sport development of the athlete in mind.Understand the exercise and training protocol and the effect it will have on the athlete: increases in strength, power, endurance, general fitness or hypertrophy (note: for the majority of sports an increase in body weight hypertrophy without a proportionally high increase in strength or power is counterproductive).
42Exercise selectionAthletes should first develop good technique before attempting to increase load. Athletes should also learn the basic lifts before progressing to more complex lifts.Failure in lifting weights is not when a weight is dropped but when technique breaks down (lifting an extra 10kg but sacrificing technique will not benefit training results and will increase the potential for injury).
43Recovery strategies Hydration Stretching – cool down Post meal, nutritionContrast showersIce bathActive pool sessionMassageHydrotherapySleep
44Training in North America TWIST conditioning inc.Twistconditioning.comSince 1999, Twist Conditioning Incorporated, has been an industry leader in sport-specific and functional fitness, exercising to build Smart Muscle™. Just as balance is the foundation of our training, it is also the pillar of our company. With 4 major divisions - Training, Products, Education and Franchise, Twist Conditioning is world class in athlete training services, unique sport-fitness products, professional how-to-train educational programs and an integration of these 3 divisions with franchised sport conditioning centres.
45Twist- overviewTrain.Experience the difference at the Twist Sport Conditioning Centre. This is not a gym. There are no machines. Except one; the human body. The Twist difference is fueled by a team of industry leading coaches, an unparalleled training system, and an environment filled with motivation, passion, and the will to get better. Twist Sport Conditioning Centres are designed to inspire all who enter, offering an exclusive private setting with no general memberships. This is the place to be your best.
46Australian Institute of Sport The ASC is recognized as a world leader in the development of high performance sport and sports participation. Services are provided in a range of fields including:high performance coachingsport sciencessports informationsports managementfacility managementeducation and resourcesparticipation developmentdelivery of funding programs to national sporting organisations.
47Petro-Canada sport coaching conference 2010 SPIN referencesVancouver, Canada
49Research Journal of Strength & conditioning Research International Journal of sports physiology and performance
50Concurrent strength and endurance training Concurrent strength and endurance training appears to inhibit strength development when compared with strength training aloneMichael Leveritt,1,2 Peter J. Abernethy,2 Benjamin K. Barry2 and Peter A. Logan3 1 Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Waikato Polytechnic, Hamilton, New Zealand 2 Department of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 3 Department of Exercise Physiology and Applied Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
51Development of a simulated round of golf Simulated round successfully recreated the demands of an on-course round. A simulated round could be used as a research tool to asses the extend of fatigue during a round of golf or the impact of various interventions on golfersPhilip R. Hayes, Kjell van Paridon, Duncan N. French, Kevin Thomas, Dan A. GordonFull Article Table of Contents for Vol. 4, Iss. 4
52Developing Explosive Muscular Power: Implications for a Mixed Methods Training Strategy Newton, Robert U. MHMS, CSCS; Kraemer, William J. PhD, CSCS
53Comparisons between twice-daily and once-daily training sessions in male weight lifters No additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male lifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.Michael J. Hartman; Brandon Clark ; Debra A. Bemben; J. Lon Kilgore; Michael G. BembenFull Article Table of Contents for Vol. 2, Iss. 2
54Effects of cross-training Effects of cross-training. Transfer of training effects on VO2max between cycling, running and swimming.Cross-training is a widely used approach for structuring a training programme to improve competitive performance in a specific sport by training in a variety of sports. Despite numerous anecdotal reports claiming benefits for cross-training, very few scientific studies have investigated this particular type of training. It appears that some transfer of training effects on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) exists from one mode to another. The nonspecific training effects seem to be more noticeable when running is performed as a cross-training mode. Swim training, however, may result in minimum transfer of training effects on VO2max.Cross-training effects never exceed those induced by the sport-specific training mode. The principles of specificity of training tend to have greater significance, especially for highly trained athletes.For the general population, cross-training may be highly beneficial in terms of overall fitness. Similarly, cross-training may be an appropriate supplement during rehabilitation periods from physical injury and during periods of overtraining or psychological fatigue.Tanaka H.Exercise Science Unit, University of Tennessee at Knoxville.
55The use of static stretching in warm up for training and competition Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-ups before training and competition. A growing amount of research, however, has demonstrated that SS can impair muscle performance, leading to a reevaluation of optimal warm-up protocols. This commentary discusses many of the methodological issues that can influence conclusions about the acute effects of SS on performance. One difficulty in interpreting the literature is the lack of control or communication about the volume and intensity of the various stretching treatments used. Another major issue is the failure of many researchers to evaluate SS as it is used in practice, particularly the interaction with the other general and sport-specific components of the warm-up.Acute warm-up effects on performance should be considered in conjunction with potential effects on injury prevention. Future directions in research include optimizing general and sport-specific warm-ups, time course of physiological and performance effects, and individualization of warm-ups according to fitness and skill level.Warren B. YoungFull Article Table of Contents for Vol. 2, Iss. 2
56Water Immersion: Does It Enhance Recovery From Exercise? It is possible that water immersion might improve recovery from plyometric or muscle-damaging exercise. Such a statement needs to be verified, however, because of the scarcity of research on water immersion as a recovery strategy.Ian M. Wilcock ; John B. Cronin; Wayne A. HingFull Article Table of Contents for Vol. 1, Iss. 3
57Transfer of Strength and Power Training to Sports Performance Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills.Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability.Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.Warren B. YoungFull Article Table of Contents for Vol. 1, Iss. 2
58Physiological Responses to Cold Water Immersion Following Cycling in the Heat CWI did not result in hypothermia and can be considered safe following high intensity cycling in the heat, using the above protocol. CWI significantly reduced heart rate and core temperature; however, all other metabolic and endocrine markers were not affected by CWI.Shona L. Halson, Marc J. Quod, David T. Martin, Andrew S. Gardner, Tammie R. Ebert, Paul B. LaursenFull Article Table of Contents for Vol. 3, Iss. 3
59Correlations Between Injury, Training Intensity, and Physical and Mental Exhaustion Among College AthletesThe current investigators found the training involved 2-3 hours of moderate to high intensity 4.5 days per week both during competition and noncompetition; women and men spent 2-3 hours of light intensity 1.31 and 1.45 days per week, respectively. Women and men in addition to training, engaged in 3.78 and 4.43 hours of leisure physical activity per week.The investigators recommend tapering, periodization, and rest to help avoid overuse syndrome, overreaching, and overtraining that leads to excessive physical and mental exhaustion and injury.
60Psychological Correlates of Performance in Female Athletes During a 12-Week Off-Season Strength and Conditioning ProgramThe study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.
61Pilates for Improvement of Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, Balance, and Posture This study demonstrated that in active middle-aged men and women, exposure to Pilates exercise for 12 weeks, for two 60-minute sessions per week, was enough to promote statistically significant increases in abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, and upper-body muscular endurance.Participants did not demonstrate improvements in either posture or balance when compared with the control group.Exercise-training programs that address physical inactivity concerns and that are accessible and enjoyable to the general public are a desirable commodity for exercise and fitness trainers.This study suggests that individuals can improve their muscular endurance and flexibility using relatively low-intensity Pilates exercises that do not require equipment or a high degree of skill and are easy to master and use within a personal fitness routine.
62Salivary Cortisol and Immunoglobulin A Responses During Golf Competition vs. Practice in Elite Male and Female Junior GolfersIn conclusion, salivary cortisol and IgA were elevated during golf competition compared with practice in male junior golfers, but they were not in female golfers. Furthermore, salivary cortisol was higher before a round than rest in men, but it was higher after a round than rest in women.Both male and female junior golfers, however, showed similar salivary IgA responses during golf. Our results suggest that sex might play a role on stress and immune responses during a game of golf in elite junior golfers.
63Monitoring Load, Recovery, and Performance in Young Elite Soccer Players The duration of training and game play in the week before field test performance is most strongly related to interval endurance capacity.Therefore, coaches should focus on training duration to improve interval endurance capacity in elite soccer players.To evaluate the group and individual training response, field tests should be frequently executed and be incorporated in the training program.
64REFERENCES International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance Journal of Strength & Conditioning ResearchJournal of Medicine & Science in Sports & ExerciseTwistconditioning.comausport.gov.auGreg D. Wells- Performance Consulting- RCGA high performance programs
65ReferencesPetro-Canada Sport Leadership Sportif Coaching Conference 2009Developing Athleticism – The Foundation of Long-Term Sport Success: Peter TwistHKIN Sport and Exercise Physiology 2009HKIN Active health 2009HKIN Sport and Exercise Psychology 2009