Presentation on theme: " Training movement, not muscle Efficiency Athlete development Training principles Training programs Recovery strategies Research."— Presentation transcript:
Training movement, not muscle Efficiency Athlete development Training principles Training programs Recovery strategies Research
Failing to optimize performance Does not simulate performance on field Creates false sense of confidence Muscle isolation Machine based Aerobic training Linear speed training
Encourages athlete to think and react Encourages athlete to analyze and correct their own performance Exercises are related to the athlete’s sporting demands Promotes realistic sense of confidence
The experimental group which trained with the load that maximized mechanical power achieved the best overall results in enhancing dynamic athletic performance recording statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements on most test items and producing statistically superior results to the two other training modalities on the jumping and isokinetic tests.
Muscle reactivity Joint stability Rotary core power Deceleration Whole body power initiation Multi joint strength Multi directional movement skills Whole body reaction skills
Strength is the maximal force a muscle group can generate Power is the rate of performing work Power = force x distance / time Muscular endurance is the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions or a single static contraction Aerobic Power: The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the involvement and availability of oxygen Anaerobic Power: The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without the involvement of oxygen
Achieve goals in sport and life Holistic approach › Treatment and training of the person as a whole, taking into account mental + social factors
Body composition Mobility Balance Speed Agility Power 1 st step quickness Strength Aerobic condition Anaerobic condition
› Systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, or increasing enjoyment/satisfaction › Integrates many psychological skills and methods › Requires training over time › Individualized
1. Create a healthy climate that is enjoyable and focused on mastering skills 2. Utilize a positive approach to coaching that involves positive reinforcement, encouragement, and appropriate instruction 3. Establish norms that emphasize athletes’ obligations to help and support one another. 4. Include athletes in decision-making roles regarding team rules and compliance 5. Engage in self-monitoring and assessment in order to focus on positive coaching behaviour
Fuel body for performance Nutritional plan › E.g. Carbohydrate loading Pre-post training/ competition
Breakfast: Scrambled eggs, 500 mL water, piece of fruit, yogurt During warm-up (stretching, range, putting and chipping time before you tee-off): Piece of fruit, water During the first 6 holes: Banana, water or a mix of Gatorade and water if it is hot During the middle 6 holes: Half of a sandwich, water During the last 6 holes: granola bar or fruit, water (or Gatorade if getting tired) After the round and before post-round practice at the range / short game area: nuts, water, 2ndhalf sandwich, banana My recovery plan (how will you refuel to get ready for the next day’s game? May include more than just nutrition, e.g. stretching, hot/cold showers, massage, etc…): hot shower, stretching, relax watching television eat spaghetti with tomato sauce and veggies / protein (i.e. chicken) lots of water
1. individuality › Individualizing drills › Sport demands › Position › Fitness goals › Past/current injuries › Muscle imbalances › Postural breakdowns UNIQUE AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATION
2. Specificity › Sport specific › To gain benefit, you must overload progressively for that benefit. › Strength, power, endurance, throwing, kicking, jumping, high speed, low speed. Train for what you need! 3. Reversibility › If you don’t use it, you’ll lose it › Maintenance program
4. Progressive overload › Muscles must work against a load that is greater than normal to improve. › Work body harder than normal, progress to higher levels › Includes: musculoskeletal, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory systems
5. Hard/ Easy › 2 days hard training should be followed by 1 day easy training 6. Periodization (1 year) › 12 w macrocycle › 4w meso cycle › 1w micro cycle
Under training : type of training an athlete would undertake between competitive seasons or during active rest Acute overload : the athlete is stressing the body to the extent necessary to improve physiological function and performance Overreaching : brief period of heavy overload without adequate recovery Overtraining : point at which an athlete experiences physiological maladaptations and chronic performance decrements
Unexplained decline in performance and physiological function Can occur with each of the major forms of training Cannot be remedied by a few days of reduced training, rest, or dietary manipulation Possible causes: Periods of excessive training or emotional stress Symptoms similar to clinical depression
Sense of a loss in muscular strength, coordination, and work capacity Change in appetite Body weight loss Sleep disturbances Irritability, restlessness, excitability, anxiousness Loss of motivation and vigor Lack of mental concentration Feelings of depression Lack of appreciation for things normally enjoyable
Sympathetic Overtraining Increased resting heart rate Increased blood pressure Loss of appetite Decreased body mass Sleep disturbances Emotional instability Elevated basal metabolic rate Parasympathetic Overtraining Early onset of fatigue Decreased resting heart rate Rapid heart rate recovery after exercise Decreased resting blood pressure
Treatment Marked reduction in training intensity or complete rest Counseling Prevention Follow periodization training procedures Pay attention to carbohydrate intake
Low-repetition, high-resistance training enhances strength development High-repetition, low-resistance training optimizes muscular endurance Periodization is important to prevent overtraining and burnout A typical periodization cycle has 4 active phases, each emphasizing a different muscular fitness component, plus an active recovery
Resistance training can use static or dynamic contractions Eccentric training appears to be essential to maximizing hypertrophy Electrical stimulation can be successfully used in rehabilitating athletes
Decreasing training intensity and volume before a competition increases strength, power, and performance capacity Optimal duration of the taper is 4-28 days or longer and is dependent on the sport, event, and the athlete’s needs Muscular strength increases significantly during tapering Allows time for muscles to be repaired from damage incurred during intense training and for energy stores to be restored
Less training is needed to maintain previous gains than was originally needed to attain them, so tapering does not decrease conditioning Performance improves by an average of ~3% with proper tapering
Changing intensity before major events › related practice must be of competition quality –every ball contact counts, and realistic game situations should be recreated in practice. This is especially important in the 10 days before championships.
Changing volume › golf training and practiced should be decreased slightly (by 10-15%) and cardio training should be decreased significantly (50% or more), and strength training should be decreased significantly (50% and minimal muscle stress during training).
Changing frequency › reduce training frequency to no less than 80% of pre-taper values to avoid detraining and “loss of feel”, especially in technique dependent sports like golf.
Always have a plan. All programs should be challenging: if the training becomes too easy the body will adapt very quickly and progress will stagnate. Most injuries occur when there is a large change in training load or intensity: always progressively add training elements that work with the training plan. Consistency is the key: without a consistent approach to training, regularity of session, effort during sessions and recovery after sessions the chance of high performance results is very limited.
Exercises and training protocols should be selected with the specific sport development of the athlete in mind. Understand the exercise and training protocol and the effect it will have on the athlete: increases in strength, power, endurance, general fitness or hypertrophy (note: for the majority of sports an increase in body weight hypertrophy without a proportionally high increase in strength or power is counterproductive).
Athletes should first develop good technique before attempting to increase load. Athletes should also learn the basic lifts before progressing to more complex lifts. Failure in lifting weights is not when a weight is dropped but when technique breaks down (lifting an extra 10kg but sacrificing technique will not benefit training results and will increase the potential for injury).
Hydration Stretching – cool down Post meal, nutrition Contrast showers Ice bath Active pool session Massage Hydrotherapy Sleep
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The ASC is recognized as a world leader in the development of high performance sport and sports participation. Services are provided in a range of fields including: › high performance coaching › sport sciences › sports information › sports management › facility management › education and resources › participation development › delivery of funding programs to national sporting organisations.
Journal of Strength & conditioning Research International Journal of sports physiology and performance
› Concurrent strength and endurance training appears to inhibit strength development when compared with strength training alone
› Simulated round successfully recreated the demands of an on-course round. A simulated round could be used as a research tool to asses the extend of fatigue during a round of golf or the impact of various interventions on golfers
› No additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male lifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.
Cross-training is a widely used approach for structuring a training programme to improve competitive performance in a specific sport by training in a variety of sports. Despite numerous anecdotal reports claiming benefits for cross-training, very few scientific studies have investigated this particular type of training. It appears that some transfer of training effects on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) exists from one mode to another. The nonspecific training effects seem to be more noticeable when running is performed as a cross- training mode. Swim training, however, may result in minimum transfer of training effects on VO2max. Cross-training effects never exceed those induced by the sport- specific training mode. The principles of specificity of training tend to have greater significance, especially for highly trained athletes. For the general population, cross-training may be highly beneficial in terms of overall fitness. Similarly, cross-training may be an appropriate supplement during rehabilitation periods from physical injury and during periods of overtraining or psychological fatigue.
Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-ups before training and competition. A growing amount of research, however, has demonstrated that SS can impair muscle performance, leading to a reevaluation of optimal warm-up protocols. This commentary discusses many of the methodological issues that can influence conclusions about the acute effects of SS on performance. One difficulty in interpreting the literature is the lack of control or communication about the volume and intensity of the various stretching treatments used. Another major issue is the failure of many researchers to evaluate SS as it is used in practice, particularly the interaction with the other general and sport-specific components of the warm-up. Acute warm-up effects on performance should be considered in conjunction with potential effects on injury prevention. Future directions in research include optimizing general and sport- specific warm-ups, time course of physiological and performance effects, and individualization of warm-ups according to fitness and skill level.
It is possible that water immersion might improve recovery from plyometric or muscle-damaging exercise. Such a statement needs to be verified, however, because of the scarcity of research on water immersion as a recovery strategy.
Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.
CWI did not result in hypothermia and can be considered safe following high intensity cycling in the heat, using the above protocol. CWI significantly reduced heart rate and core temperature; however, all other metabolic and endocrine markers were not affected by CWI.
The current investigators found the training involved 2-3 hours of moderate to high intensity 4.5 days per week both during competition and noncompetition; women and men spent 2-3 hours of light intensity 1.31 and 1.45 days per week, respectively. Women and men in addition to training, engaged in 3.78 and 4.43 hours of leisure physical activity per week. The investigators recommend tapering, periodization, and rest to help avoid overuse syndrome, overreaching, and overtraining that leads to excessive physical and mental exhaustion and injury.
The study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.
This study demonstrated that in active middle-aged men and women, exposure to Pilates exercise for 12 weeks, for two 60- minute sessions per week, was enough to promote statistically significant increases in abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, and upper-body muscular endurance. Participants did not demonstrate improvements in either posture or balance when compared with the control group. Exercise-training programs that address physical inactivity concerns and that are accessible and enjoyable to the general public are a desirable commodity for exercise and fitness trainers. This study suggests that individuals can improve their muscular endurance and flexibility using relatively low-intensity Pilates exercises that do not require equipment or a high degree of skill and are easy to master and use within a personal fitness routine.
In conclusion, salivary cortisol and IgA were elevated during golf competition compared with practice in male junior golfers, but they were not in female golfers. Furthermore, salivary cortisol was higher before a round than rest in men, but it was higher after a round than rest in women. Both male and female junior golfers, however, showed similar salivary IgA responses during golf. Our results suggest that sex might play a role on stress and immune responses during a game of golf in elite junior golfers.
The duration of training and game play in the week before field test performance is most strongly related to interval endurance capacity. Therefore, coaches should focus on training duration to improve interval endurance capacity in elite soccer players. To evaluate the group and individual training response, field tests should be frequently executed and be incorporated in the training program.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Twistconditioning.com ausport.gov.au Greg D. Wells- Performance Consulting- RCGA high performance programs
Petro-Canada Sport Leadership Sportif Coaching Conference 2009 › Developing Athleticism – The Foundation of Long-Term Sport Success: Peter Twist HKIN Sport and Exercise Physiology 2009 HKIN Active health 2009 HKIN Sport and Exercise Psychology 2009