21. Studying the Ancient World C1S1 Clues from the PastMain IdeasHistorians and archaeologists look for clues in written records and artifacts.Other sources of clues include legends and luck.The Big IdeaHistorians and archaeologists study fossils, artifacts, and written records to learn about the past.
31. Studying the Ancient World C1S2 Putting the Pieces Together Main IdeasHistorians and archaeologists look for clues in written records and artifacts.Other sources of clues include legends and luck.The Big IdeaHistorians and archaeologists study fossils, artifacts, and written records to learn about the past.
5Main Ideas The Big Idea 2. The Fall of Rome (117 – 1453) C2S1 The Roman EmpireMain IdeasLeadership and laws helped the Romans in building the empire.Roman advancements in engineering, architecture, art, and philosophy helped .Christianity spread quickly throughout the Roman world.The Big IdeaThe Romans made great advances in many fields that helped keep their empire strong.
6C2S2 Fall of the Western Roman Empire 2. The Fall of Rome (117 – 1453)C2S2 Fall of the Western Roman EmpireMain IdeasMany problems threatened the Roman Empire, leading one emperor to divide it in half.Barbarians invaded Rome in the 300s and 400s.Many factors contributed to Rome’s fall.The Big IdeaProblems from both inside and outside caused the Roman Empire to split and the western half to collapse.
7C2S3 The Byzantine Empire 2. The Fall of Rome (117 – 1453)C2S3 The Byzantine EmpireMain IdeasEastern emperors ruled from Constantinople and tried but failed to reunite the whole Roman Empire.The people of the eastern empire created a new society that was very different from society in the west.Byzantine Christianity was different from religion in the west.The Big IdeaThe Roman Empire split into two parts, and the eastern Roman Empire prospered for hundreds of years after the western empire fell.
9C3S1 Geography and Life in Arabia 3. The Rise of Islam (AD 550 -650)C3S1 Geography and Life in ArabiaMain IdeasArabia is mostly a desert land.Two ways of life – nomadic and sedentary – developed in the desert.The Big IdeaLife in Arabia was influenced by the harsh desert climate of the region.
10Main Ideas The Big Idea 3. The Rise of Islam (AD 550 -650) C3S2 Origins of IslamMain IdeasMuhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia.Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and Christianity, but they also presented new ideas.Islam spread in Arabia after being rejected at first.The Big IdeaMuhammad, a merchant from Mecca, introduced a major world religion called Islam.
11C3S3 Islamic Beliefs and Practices 3. The Rise of Islam (AD 550 -650)C3S3 Islamic Beliefs and PracticesMain IdeasThe Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives.The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of them.Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.The Big IdeaSacred texts called the Qur’an and the Sunnah guide Muslims in their religion, daily life, and laws.
13Main Ideas The Big Idea 4. The Spread of Islam (634 – 1650) C4S1 Early ExpansionMain IdeasMuslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread.Trade helped Islam spread into new areas.A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread.Islamic influence encourage the growth of cities.The Big IdeaConquest and trade led to the spread of Islam, the blending of cultures, and the growth of cities.
14Main Ideas The Big Idea 4. The Spread of Islam (634 – 1650) C4S2 Muslim EmpiresMain IdeasThe Ottoman Empire covered a large area in eastern Europe.The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam.The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage.The Big IdeaAfter the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires formed – the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal.
15Main Ideas The Big Idea 4. The Spread of Islam (634 – 1650) C4S3 Muslim EmpiresMain IdeasMuslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy.Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts.The Big IdeaMuslim scholars and artists made contributions to science, art, and literature.
165. Early West African Societies (3000 BC – AD 300)
175. Early West African Societies (3000 BC – AD 300) C5S1 Geography of AfricaMain IdeasThe landforms, water, climate, and plant life affected history in West Africa.West Africa’s resources included farmland, gold, and salt.The Big IdeaWest Africa has varied environments and valuable resources.
185. Early West African Societies (3000 BC – AD 300) C5S2 Early Culture and TradeMain IdeasFamily and religion influenced daily life in early West African society.Iron technology changed life in West Africa.Trade shaped the history of West Africa.The Big IdeaFamily ties, religion, iron technology, and trade all contributed to the growth of West African societies.
206. West African Empires (1000 – 1600) C6S1 Empire of GhanaMain IdeasGhana controlled trade and became wealthy.Through its control of trade, Ghana built an empire.Ghana’s decline was caused by attacking invaders, overgrazing, and the loss of trade.The Big IdeaThe rulers of Ghana built an empire by controlling the salt and gold trade.
216. West African Empires (1000 – 1600) C6S2 Empire of GhanaMain IdeasA ruler named Sundiata made Mali into an empire.Mali reached its height under the ruler Mansa Musa.Mail fell to invaders in the late 1400s.The Big IdeaThe wealthy and powerful Mali Empire ruled West Africa after the fall of Ghana.
226. West African Empires (1000 – 1600) C6S3 Empire of SonghaiMain IdeasThe Songhai built a new empire in West Africa.Askia the Great ruled Songhai as an Islamic empire.Songhai fell to Moroccan invaders, ending the great era of West African empires.The Big IdeaThe Songhai Empire strengthened Islam in West Africa.
23Main Ideas The Big Idea 6. West African Empires (1000 – 1600) C6S4 Historical and Artistic TraditionsMain IdeasStorytellers helped maintain the oral history of the cultures of West Africa.Visitors to West Africa from other lands wrote histories and descriptions of what they saw there.Traditionally, West Africans have valued the arts.The Big IdeaBecause the people of West Africa did not have a written language, their culture has been passed down through oral history, writings by other people, and the arts.
25Main Ideas The Big Idea 7. China (589 – 1450) C7S1 China Reunifies The Period of Disunion was a time of war and disorder that followed the end of the Han dynasty.China was reunified under the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.The Age of Buddhism saw major religious changes in China.The Big IdeaThe Period of Disunion was followed by reunification by rulers of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.
26C7S2 Tang and Song Achievements 7. China (589 – 1450)C7S2 Tang and Song AchievementsMain IdeasAdvances in agriculture led to increased trade and population growth.Cities and trade grew during the Tang and Song dynasties.The Tang and Song dynasties produced fine arts and inventions.The Big IdeaThe Tang and Song dynasties were periods of economic, cultural, and technological accomplishments.
27C7S3 Confucianism and Government 7. China (589 – 1450)C7S3 Confucianism and GovernmentMain IdeasConfucianism underwent changes and influenced Chinese government.Scholar-officials ran China’s government during the Song dynasty.The Big IdeaConfucian thought influenced the Song government.
28C7S4 The Yuan and Ming Dynasties 7. China (589 – 1450)C7S4 The Yuan and Ming DynastiesMain IdeasThe Mongol Empire included China, and the Mongols ruled China as the Yuan dynasty.The Ming dynasty was a time of stability and prosperity.China under the Ming saw great changes in its government and relations with other countries.The Big IdeaThe Chinese were ruled by foreigners during the Yuan dynasty, but they threw off Mongol rule and prospered during the Ming dynasty.
30C8S1 Geography and Early Japan Main IdeasGeography shaped life in Japan.Early Japanese society was organized in clans, which came to be ruled by an emperor.Japan learned about language, society, and government from China and Korea.The Big IdeaJapan’s early societies were both isolated from and influenced by China and Korea.
31C8S2 Art and Culture in Heian 8. Japan (550 -1868)C8S2 Art and Culture in HeianMain IdeasJapanese nobles created great art in their court at Heian.Buddhism changed in Japan during the Heian period.The Big IdeaJapanese culture experienced a golden age during the Heian period of the 800s to the 1100s.
32C8S3 Growth of a Military Society 8. Japan (550 -1868)C8S3 Growth of a Military SocietyMain IdeasSamurai and shoguns took over Japan as emperors lost influence.Samurai warriors lived honorably.Order broke down when the power of the shoguns was challenged by invaders and rebellions.Strong leaders took over and reunified Japan.The Big IdeaJapan developed a military society led by generals called shoguns.
34Main Ideas The Big Idea 9. The Early Middle Ages (400 – 1200) C9S1 Growth of a Military SocietyMain IdeasThe physical features of Europe vary widely from region to region.Geography has shaped life in Europe, including where and how people live.The Big IdeaBecause Europe has many types of landforms and climates, different ways of life have developed there.
35Main Ideas The Big Idea 9. The Early Middle Ages (400 – 1200) C9S2 Europe after the Fall of RomeMain IdeasChristianity spread to northern Europe through the work of missionaries and monks.The Franks, led by Charlemagne, created a huge Christian empire and brought together scholars from around Europe.Invaders threatened much of Europe in the 700s and 800s.The Big IdeaDespite the efforts of Christians to maintain order, Europe was a dangerous place after the fall of Rome.
369. The Early Middle Ages (400 – 1200) C9S3 Feudalism and Manor Life Main IdeasFeudalism governed how knights and nobles dealt with each other.Feudalism spread through much of Europe.The manor system dominated Europe’s economy.Towns and trade grew and helped end the feudal system.The Big IdeaA complex web of duties and obligations governed relationships between people in the Middle Ages.
379. The Early Middle Ages (400 – 1200) C9S4 Feudal SocietiesMain IdeasFeudal societies shared common elements in Europe and Japan.Europe and Japan differed in their cultural elements such as religion and art.The Big IdeaAlthough the feudal systems of Europe and Japan were similar, their cultures were very different.
3910. The Later Middle Ages (1000 – 1500) C10S1 Popes and KingsMain IdeasPopes and kings ruled Europe as spiritual and political leaders.Popes fought for power, leading to a permanent split within the church.Kings and popes clashed over some issues.The Big IdeaPopes and kings dominated European society in the Middle Ages.
4010. The Later Middle Ages (1000 – 1500) C10S2 The CrusadesMain IdeasThe pope called on Crusaders to invade the Holy Land.Despite some initial success, the later Crusades failed.The Crusades changed Europe forever.The Big IdeaThe Christian and Muslim cultures fought over holy sites during a series of medieval wars.
41Main Ideas The Big Idea 10. The Later Middle Ages (1000 – 1500) C10S3 Christianity and Medieval SocietyMain IdeasThe Christian Church shaped society and politics in medieval Europe.Orders of monks and friars did not like the church’s political nature.Church leaders helped build the first universities in Europe.The church influenced the arts in medieval Europe.The Big IdeaThe Christian Church was central to life in the Middle Ages.
42Main Ideas The Big Idea 10. The Later Middle Ages (1000 – 1500) C10S4 Political and Social ChangeMain IdeasMagna Carta caused changes in England’s government and legal system.The Hundred Years’ War led to political changes to England and France.The Black Death, which swept through Europe in the Middle Ages, led to social changes.The Big IdeaEurope’s political and social systems underwent great changes in the late Middle Ages.
43Main Ideas The Big Idea 10. The Later Middle Ages (1000 – 1500) C10S5 Challenges to Church AuthorityMain IdeasThe church reacted to challengers by punishing people who opposed its teachings.Christians fought Moors in Spain and Portugal in an effort to drive all Muslims out of Europe.Jews faced discrimination across Europe in the Middle Ages.The Big IdeaIn the Middle Ages, the Christian Church dealt harshly with people who did not respect its authority.
45C11S1 Origins of the Renaissance Main IdeasEuropean trade with Asia increased in the 1300s.Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy and competed against each other.As Florence became a center for arts and learning, the Renaissance began.The Big IdeaThe growth of wealthy trading cities in Italy led to a new era called the Renaissance.
46C11S2 The Italian Renaissance 11. The Renaissance (1271 – 1600)C11S2 The Italian RenaissanceMain IdeasDuring the Italian Renaissance, people found new ways to see the world.Italian writers contributed great works of literature.Italian art and artists were among the finest in the world.Science and education made advances during this time.The Big IdeaNew ways of thinking created a rebirth of the arts and learning in Italy.
47C11S3 The Renaissance beyond Italy Main IdeasPaper, printing, and new universities led to the spread of new ideas.The ideas of the Northern Renaissance differed from those of the Italian Renaissance.Literature beyond Italy also thrived in the Renaissance.The Big IdeaThe Renaissance spread far beyond Italy and changed in the process.
4812. The Reformation of Christianity (1492 – 1650)
4912. The Reformation of Christianity (1492 – 1650) C12S1 The Protestant ReformationMain IdeasThe Catholic Church faced challengers who were upset with the behavior of Catholic clergy and with church practices.Martin Luther urged reform in the Catholic Church, but he eventually broke away from the church.Other reformers built on the ideas of early reformers to create their own churches.The Big IdeaUnsatisfied with the Roman Catholic Church, religious reformers broke away to form their own churches.
5012. The Reformation of Christianity (1492 – 1650) C12S2 The Catholic ReformationMain IdeasThe influence of the church created a Catholic culture in Spain.Catholic reforms emerged in response to the Reformation.Missionaries worked to spread Catholic teachings.The Big IdeaCatholic leaders worked to reform the Catholic Church and spread Catholic teachings.
5112. The Reformation of Christianity (1492 – 1650) C12S3 Effects of the ReformationMain IdeasReligious division occurred within Europe and the Americas.Religious wars broke out between Protestants and Catholics.Social changes were a result of the Reformation.The Big IdeaThe Reformation changed religion in Europe and led to political and cultural conflicts.
53Main Ideas The Big Idea 13. The Scientific Revolution (1525 – 1725) C13S1 A New View of the WorldMain IdeasThe Scientific Revolution marked the birth of modern science.The roots of the Scientific Revolution can be traced to ancient Greece, the Muslim world, and Europe.The Big IdeaEuropeans drew on earlier ideas to develop a new way of gaining knowledge about the natural world.
54Main Ideas The Big Idea 13. The Scientific Revolution (1525 – 1725) C13S2 Discoveries and InventionsMain IdeasThe discovery of the Americas led scholars to doubt ancient Greek ideas.Advances in astronomy were key events of the Scientific Revolution.Sir Isaac Newton developed laws that explained much of the natural world.New inventions helped scientists study the natural world.The Big IdeaDuring the Scientific Revolution, new ideas and inventions changed the nature of knowledge.
5513. The Scientific Revolution (1525 – 1725) C13S3 Science and SocietyMain IdeasThe ideas of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes helped to clarify the scientific method.Science influenced new ideas about government.Science and religion developed a sometimes uneasy relationship.The Big IdeaThe Scientific Revolution led to the establishment of science as a method of learning, new ideas about government, and conflict with religious authorities.
57Main Ideas The Big Idea 14. The Early Americas (12,000 BC – AD 1000) C14S1 Geography and Early CulturesMain IdeasThe geography of the Americas is varied with a wide range of landforms.The first people to arrive in the Americas were hunter-gatherers.The development of farming led to early settlements in the Americas.The Big IdeaThe landforms and climate of the Americas affected farming and the development of early cultures.
5814. The Early Americas (12,000 BC – AD 1000) C14S2 The MayaMain IdeasGeography affected early Maya civilization.The Maya Classic Age was characterized by great cities, trade, and warfare.Maya civilization declined and historians have several theories as to why.The Big IdeaMaya civilization was characterized by great cities, trade, and warfare, but it disappeared for reasons that are still unclear.
5914. The Early Americas (12,000 BC – AD 1000) C14S2 The MayaMain IdeasRoles in Maya society were based on a complex class structure.Religion in Maya society was often bloody.The Maya made achievements in art, science, math, and writing.The Big IdeaPeople played different roles in Maya society, but together they made great achievements in art, science, math, and writing.
60Main Ideas The Big Idea 14. The Early Americas (12,000 BC – AD 1000) C14S3 Maya Life and SocietyMain IdeasRoles in Maya society were based on a complex class structure.Religion in Maya society was often bloody.The Maya made achievements in art, science, math, and writing.The Big IdeaPeople played different roles in Maya society, but together they made great achievements in art, science, math, and writing.
6215. The Aztec and Inca Empires (1325 – 1537) C15S1 The Aztec EmpireMain IdeasThe Aztecs built an empire through warfare and trade and created an impressive capital city in Mesoamerica.Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire.The Big IdeaThe Aztecs built a great empire in central Mexico but were conquered by the Spanish in 1521.
63Main Ideas The Big Idea 15. The Aztec and Inca Empires (1325 – 1537) C15S2 Aztec Life and SocietyMain IdeasAztec society was divided by social roles and by class.Aztec religion required human sacrifice for keeping the gods happy.The Aztecs had many achievements in science, art, and language.The Big IdeaThe Aztecs developed complex social, religious, artistic, and scientific systems in their empire.
6415. The Aztec and Inca Empires (1325 – 1537) C15S3 The Inca EmpireMain IdeasThe rise of the Inca Empire was due to conquest and the achievements of the Inca people.Pizarro conquered the Incas and took control of the region.The Big IdeaThe Incas built a huge empire in South America, but they were conquered by the Spanish.
65Main Ideas The Big Idea 15. The Aztec and Inca Empires (1325 – 1537) C15S4 Inca Life and SocietyMain IdeasFor the Incas, position in society affected daily life.The Incas made great achievements in building, art, and oral literature.The Big IdeaMany kinds of people made up Inca society in an empire known for grand architecture and complex oral literature.
67Main Ideas The Big Idea 16. The Age of Exploration (1400 – 1650) C16S1 Great Voyages of DiscoveryMain IdeasEuropeans had a desire and opportunity to explore.Portuguese and Spanish explorations led to discoveries of new trade routes, lands, and people.English and French explorers found land in North America.A new European worldview developed because of the discoveries.The Big IdeaEuropean explorers made discoveries that brought knowledge, wealth, and influence to their countries.
6816. The Age of Exploration (1400 – 1650) C16S2 The Columbian Exchange Main IdeasPlants and animals were exchanged among Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.Culture and technology changed as ideas were exchanged between Europe and the Americas.Society and the economy changed in Europe and the Americas.The Big IdeaThe exchange of plants, animals, ideas, and technology between the Old World and the New World brought many changes all over the world.
6916. The Age of Exploration (1400 – 1650) C16S3 Origins of Capitalism Main IdeasA new economic system called mercantilism emerged.New trading patterns developed in the 1600s and 1700s.Power in Europe shifted as a result of new trade routes, banking, and increased manufacturing.Market economies changed business in Europe.The Big IdeaChanges in international trading and marketing patterns influenced the development of a new economic system called capitalism.
71Main Ideas The Big Idea 17. Enlightenment and Revolution (1642 – 1800) C17S1 Ideas of the EnlightenmentMain IdeasThe Enlightenment was also called the Age of Reason.The Enlightenment’s roots can be traced back to earlier ideas.New ideas came mainly from French and British thinkers.The Big IdeaEnlightenment thinkers built on ideas from earlier movements to emphasize the importance of reason.
72Main Ideas The Big Idea 17. Enlightenment and Revolution (1642 – 1800) C17S2 New Views on GovernmentMain IdeasThe Enlightenment influenced some monarchies.Enlightenment thinkers helped the growth of democratic ideas.In America, the Enlightenment inspired a struggle for independence.The Big IdeaEnlightenment ideas influenced the growth of democratic governments in Europe and America.
73Main Ideas The Big Idea 17. Enlightenment and Revolution (1642 – 1800) C17S3 The Age of RevolutionMain IdeasRevolution and reform changed the governments of England.Enlightenment ideas led to democracy in America.The French Revolution caused major changes in France’s government.The Big IdeaRevolutions changed the governments of Britain, the American colonies, and France.