Presentation on theme: "NEBOSH Fire Certificate Element 4 Part 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 NEBOSH Fire Certificate Element 4 Part 2 Issue Oct 2011
2 Fire Protection in Buildings We cant see it coming,, we cant hear it, we cant smell it but we know when it gets us.
3 FIRE EXTINGUISHER LOCATION, IDENTIFICATION AND USE
4 Fire ExtinguisherFIRE EXTINGUISHERS ARE PROVIDED TO REMOVE PARTS OF THE TRIANGLE OF FIRE THEREBY PREVENTING COMBUSTION FROM CONTINUING.COOLINGSTARVATIONFUELHEATOXYGENSMOTHERING
5 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES There is not a universal fire-extinguishing agent and therefore there is a possibility that using particular types of fire extinguishers on ignited materials or liquids may make the fire considerably worse and place the fire fighter at risk.Under British Standard EN-2 (Classification of Fires), fires have been divided into broad classifications for extinguishing purposes. This will assist in selecting the most effective fire-extinguishing agent to be used, on the most appropriate type of fire and burning material
6 SIGN, COLOUR & PICTOGRAM CLASSIFICATION OF FIRESWood / Furnishings EtcCLASS A: All solid materials, usually organic origin nature (contains compounds of carbon) and generally produce glowing embers - i.e. wood, textiles, curtains furniture and plasticsFlammable Liquids & SolidsClass B:All flammable liquids and solids, which can also be sub-divided into:Non-miscible with water (i.e. petrol, oils, solvents, paints & waxes)Polar Liquid Fires (Hydrophilic/Miscible) with water (e.g. alcohol, methanol, acetone, propanol, & ethanol etc) - sometimes known as Polar Liquids.Note: Hydrophilic = having an affinity with water / Miscible = 'capable of being mixed'Fires involving GasesCLASS C:Class ‘C’ fires involve Natural Mains Gas, Liquid Petroleum Gases (e.g. LPG - Butane & Propane etc) and Medical or Industrial gases.
7 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES Fires Involving Metals SIGN, COLOUR & PICTOGRAMCLASSIFICATION OF FIRESFires Involving MetalsCLASS D:Class ‘D’ fires involving metals or powdered metals etc (where water is generally ineffective and / or dangerous).Specialist Dry Powders are produced for certain Class ‘D’ fires (i.e. M28), particularly those involving alkali metals such as Sodium & Potassium. These Dry Powders extinguish metal fires by fusing the powder to form a crust, which excludes oxygen from the surface of the molten metal. A specific agent is added to prevent the powder from sinking into the surface of the molten metalsElectricalElectrical fires are not considered to constitute a fire class on their own, as electricity is a source of ignition that will feed the fire until removed. When the electrical supply has been isolated, the fire can be treated (generally) as ‘Class A’ for extinguishing purposes. However, you should always isolate the supply before fighting the fire; if this is not possible then a non-electrical conducting extinguishing agent is to be used regardless of the power status, on all occasions.Warning Note! - Some electrical equipment can store in capacitors, lethal voltages even if their power supply has been isolated. Always use extinguishers containing a non-electrical conducting extinguishing agent specifically designed for use on electrical equipment such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or Dry Powder.High Temperature Cooking OilsCLASS F: New class specifically dealing with high temperature ( 360°C) cooking oils used in large industrial catering kitchens, restaurants and takeaway establishments’ etc. Cooking oil fires, because of their high auto-ignition temperatures, are difficult to extinguish. Conventional extinguishers are not effective for cooking oil fires, as they do not cool sufficiently or may even cause flash back, thereby putting the operator at risk. These extinguishers contain a specially formulated wet chemical which, when applied to the burning liquid, cools and emulsifies the oil, extinguishing the flame, sealing the surface and preventing re-ignition.
8 WATER Red body with WHITE label Fire Extinguisher Colour SchemeEuropean legislation dictates that all extinguishers have to have a Red body with an identifying label or band on it. The following colour codes apply:WATER Red body with WHITE labelFOAM Red body with CREAM labelCO2 Red body with BLACK labelDRY POWDER Red body with BLUE label
10 9 LTR WATER Red body with white labelling Used on CLASS A fires involving solid materials such as paper, wood, solid plasticsExtinguishing method: COOLING & SMOTHERINGDo NOT use on Oil based fires, electrical fires or fires associated with electrical equipment.
11 9 LTR FOAM Red body with a cream coloured identifying label or band Used on CLASS B fires involving flammable liquids or liquefiable solids such as Petrol, Paint solventsExtinguishing method:Smotheringcan also be used on class A fires
12 Dry Powder Red body with blue labelling Used on All CLASSES of fires (except chip or fat pan fires)Extinguishing method: SMOTHERING
13 Dry PowderSTANDARD DRY POWDER knocks down flames. Best for liquids such as grease, fats, oil, paint, petrol (except chip or fat pan fires).MULTI-PURPOSE DRY POWDER knocks down flames and, on burning solids, melts to form a skin smothering the fire. Provides some cooling effect. Best for wood, cloth, paper, plastics, coal etc. Fires involving solids. Liquids such as grease, fats, oils, paint, petrol etc (except chip or fat pan fires).Danger This type of extinguisher does not cool the fire very well and care has to be taken that the fire does not re-ignite. Additionally, although it is safe to use on live electrical equipment, it does not readily penetrate spaces inside the equipment and similar care has to be taken to ensure the fire does not re-igniteThe simplest method of which is usually to isolate the power supply. Smoldering material in deep seated fire such as upholstery or bedding can cause the fire to start up again.
14 CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)Red body with a black coloured identifying band or labelProvided for use where fires could be started by electrical equipmentExtinguishing method:SmotheringWARNING: Gas from CO2 extinguishers can be harmful if used in confined spaces as it displaces oxygen in the air. Ventilate the area as soon as the fire has been extinguished.
15 HOSEREELS Red body with white labelling Used on CLASS A fires involving solid materials such as paper, wood, solid plasticsExtinguishing method: COOLING & SMOTHERINGDo NOT use on Oil based fires, electrical fires or fires associated with electrical equipment.
16 FIRE BLANKET Red body case with white labelling- Blanket in side Used on fires such asChip or fat pan fires, persons on fireExtinguishing method: SMOTHERINGFire blankets are made of fire resistant materials. They are particularly useful for smothering fat pan fires or for wrapping round a person whose clothing is on fire.
17 FIRE BLANKET How To Use: Pull out the blanket from its caseCheck the fire is smaller than the blanket.Hold it well up in front of you by the top corners and keep your hands tucked in behind the blanket.Place it over the fire and smother it.Turn off power source. i.e. Gas/ElectricDon't take it back off for at least half an hour!That will let the material cool down.
18 Portable Fire Fighting Equipment Duration & Range of Discharge3KG= 6 seconds6 KG=9 seconds10KG= 12 seconds> 10kg= 15 seconds (all timings approx)Range will vary check with manufactures data to ensure that you will not put the operator in danger by being too close to the seat of the fire
19 Portable Fire Fighting Equipment SitingOn escape routesNear to danger points (not too near that if required you would increase the danger to the operator)Near to room exits (inside or out)Multi story buildings same location on each floorIf possible in groups to form fire pointsTravel no further than 30m to reach an extinguisherIf possible in a wall recess handle about 1m from floor (wall mounted) or on floor standsAway from excesses of heat & cold
20 Portable Fire Fighting Equipment Maintenance Monthly Inspection- Located in proper place, if discharged, correct pressure, any obvious damageAnnual Inspection & Maintenance- Thorough inspection, gas cartridges & replacement charges should be carried out by a competent person, may include internal & external inspectionTest by discharge intervals of 5 years (co2 10 years)British Standards recommendations
21 Portable Fire Fighting Equipment Training Requirements RRFSO 2005 does not specify training for fire extinguishers it does state “ Suitable & sufficient instruction & training on the appropriate precautions....to be taken by employee”Further requires training should be carried out periodically.Any person who may be called on to use a fire extinguisher should be trained in selection & practical use.
22 Passive Fire Fighting Systems Passive systems are either fully automatic or allow fire fighting to be done remotelyMost are water systems but foam or gas may also be usedTheir action is primarily containment and minimising damage caused by fire spreadExtinguishment is secondary
23 System Types Sprinklers Water based system fully automatic or semi-automaticDeluge/DrenchingWater or gas based system fully automatic or semi-automaticVentilation/Smoke Control
24 Sprinklers Various types Siting and number depends on fire risk Wet pipe, Dry pipe, Alternate Pre-action.Siting and number depends on fire risk
35 Smoke Control of Common Escape Route in Flats There should be some means of ventilating common corridors/ lobbies to control smoke and so protect common stairsThis offers individual protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stairGuidance on the design of smoke control systems using pressure differentials is available in BS EN :2005.
36 B5 Access and Facilities The building shall be designed and constructed as to provide reasonable facilities to assist fire fighters in the protection of life.Reasonable provision shall be made within the site of the building to enable fire appliances to gain access to the building.
37 Fire Service AccessVehicle access for pump appliance within 45m of “all points”to blocks of flatsOr: provide fire mains (not in f/f shaft)Fire mainsNew standard BS 9990Wet mains required for buildings over 50mDry mainsAccess for pump within 18m
41 Liaison with Fire Authority on Arrival Liaison established before emergency situationProcedures implemented & staff trained (ensure enough staff are available to carry out procedures(disabled evacuation etc)Information pack plans of buildings, info on fire alarm system, water supplies, gas/ electric shut off valve locations, build construction hazards (asbestos)Contents of building COSHH, acetyleneOut of hours procedures (emergency box location)