2Creating a Nation The U.S. occupies nearly 2/5 of North America. It is the world’s 3rd largest country in both land area and population.For thousands of years, it has attracted people searching for a better life.
3Many people settle the Land Immigration and migration is a recurring event in the development of the United States.The Spaniards were the first Europeans to arrive in the 15th century.They searched the “New World” to find gold and other treasure.
4Columbian ExchangeThe Columbian exchange was a two way transfer of a number of plant and animal species –as well as smallpox.Because of this some regions lost 90% of their original native population.At the time of the Columbian exchange, their were about 30 to 40 million Native Americans.
6The French and English began to migrate to the “New World” in the 1600’s and 1700’s. The French settled along the St. Lawrence river in what is now Canada.The English settled to the South-on the rivers and bays along the Atlantic coast.The English made their first permanent settlement in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607
8George Washington Commander in Chief First President of the United States.
9Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson was the Third President of the United StatesHe was a lead drafter of the Declaration of Independence, and was one of the most influential founding fathers.July 4, 1776
10Creating a NationUnalienable Rights: are the fundamental principles on which Thomas Jefferson based the Declaration of Independence on. He got the ideas from the enlightenment philosopher John Locke.Right to lifeRight to libertyRight to pursue happiness
12Constitutional Convention 1787 55 delegates met in Philadelphia.All the states were there except Rhode Island.They met in secret. Oldest delegate was Ben Franklin, the best looking was Alexander Hamilton.September 17, 1787, they wrote a new constitution.BIGGEST PROBLEM: SMALL STATES vs. LARGE STATES.
13Representation in US Congress Senate2 Senators per each state.Population does not matter.House of Representatives# of Representatives is based on the population of the each state
14US Constitution-September 17, 1787 US Constitution is in 3 parts:Preamble- IntroductionSeven ArticlesBill of Rights ( was added on later) & Amendments (26)Federalists- supporters of the ConstitutionAnti-federalists-opponents of the Constitution
15PreambleWe the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
16Articles of the Constitution There are 7 Articles to the Constitution.Article 1- LegislatureArticle 2 ExecutiveArticle 3 JudicialArticle 4-Relations Between the StatesArticle 5- Amendment ProcessArticle 6- Supremacy of the ConstitutionArticle 7- Ratification
18Separation of PowersFounding fathers feared one person or group of people having too MUCH POWER!Legislative Branch —US Congress.creates/writes laws has power to tax, declare war.Executive Branch —PresidentCarries out laws and represents US in foreign affairs.Judicial Branch —Supreme CourtInterprets the laws. Decides if they are unconstitutional.
19Checks and BalancesAnother way founding fathers made sure no branch of government became too powerful!
21Bill of Rights 1791 Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances
22Bill of Rights Amendment II Amendment III A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.Amendment IIINo soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
23Bill of Rights Amendment IV The right from illegal searches and seizures.Amendment VNo person shall be made to be a witness against themselves. No “Double Jeopardy.”Also, government cannot take private property for its own use with out consent from the owner.
24Bill of Rights Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury.Amendment VIIIn suits of civil law where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, one has the right to a trial by jury.
25Bill of Rights Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
26Bill of RightsAmendment IX States that peoples’ rights are NOT limited to those listed in the Constitution.Amendment X The powers NOT mentioned in the Constitution belong to the States.
27FEDERALISMPower is divided between the national government (F) and the state government. (S)Separation of Power-3 branchesLegislatureExecutiveJudicial
28RepublicanismForm of Government in which people elect representatives to make and carry out Laws.Who represents El Paso in Washington DC?Who represents El Paso in Austin?TX Senator ShapleighUS Senator CornynUS Senator HutchisonUS Congressman Reyes
29Popular Sovereignty What does that really mean? Stems from the Enlightenment philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.The rule of law is based on the consent of the governed.What does that really mean?- 28k29
30The Westward MovementThe new nation grew rapidly and settlers pushed westward.In 1803 the U.S. doubled in size. The U.S. bought the Louisiana Purchase from France.In the early 1800’s , immigrants from western Europe arrived to the Northeast part of the United States.
32Causes of the Civil War 1861-1865 The chief and immediate cause of the war was slavery.By 1860, the North and the South had developed into two very different regions. Divergent social, economic, and political points of view.The election of Abraham Lincoln as president.State’s Rights
33Differences between northern and southern states: __________ economyindustrialagricultural__________ economy“_____ states”freeslave
35DivisionSectionalism was growing as people were paying loyalty to their region. Above loyalty to their nation.This resulted in high political and economic tensions between the North and the South.
36Dredd Scott v. Sanford Pivotal Case in US History Was a slave who sued for his freedom in 184710 years later his case was heard by the Supreme CourtIn 1857 the US Supreme Court decided that all people of African ancestry -- slaves as well as those who were free -- could never become citizens of the United States.
37Nullification Crisis leads to rift between North and South The Crisis started when North Carolina opposed a raise in tariffs by the US federal government in 1828.North Carolina instituted nullification.President Jackson made it clear that all Federal Laws needed to be followed by ALL states!Nullification is a constitutional theory that gives an individual state the right to declare null and void any law passed by the United States Congress which the state deems unacceptable and/or unconstitutional.
38Election of 1860 Stephen Douglas-Democratic Abraham Lincoln-Republican 16th President of the US
39Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln opposed slavery on moral grounds, but he never thought that slaves were equal to the white man.He had wanted to free the slaves and then send them back to Africa.He would say different things to different audiences in order to get support.
40Civil war continued…Lincoln was elected in 1860 and the South succeeded from the Union in 1861.Lincoln was determined to get the Confederate States back and thus we see on the onset of battles.The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863.After Lincoln freed all slaves, they were then recruited into the Union Army.
41Black ActivistsSojourner Truth was an ex-slave involved in women’s rights and helped recruit black troops for the Union army.Harriet Tubman started the Underground railroad.
43Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865 Abraham Lincoln was assassinated while he was attending a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre with his wife and two friends.Lincoln died the following day at the home of William PetersenHe was murdered by John Wilkes Booth
45Slavery Many slaves – about half a million escaped during the war. The 13th amendment outlawed slaveryAndrew Johnson, the 17th president, vetoed bills to help blacks and he made it easier for the southern states to return to the Union after the Civil War.
50Although slavery was illegal, blacks in the south were treated like serfs working the plantation. They were not allowed to rent or own property unless they made a contract with the owners of plantations.
5213th AmendmentNeither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdictionAbolished Slavery!.
5314th AmendmentThe amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves. It did this by prohibiting states from denying or abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, depriving any person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying to any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.*It is now regarded as one of the most important components of the Constitution!
5415th Amendment Granted blacks the right to vote “The right of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be divided or abridged by the U.S. or by any state on account of race, color, or precious condition of servitude”
55Industrial and Urban Society In the second half of the 19th century many Americans were on the move.Westward movement – hundreds of thousands of people left by wagon to the Frontier.
56ExpansionWith the westward expansion many Indians were removed from their landThe Trail of Tears was named after the evacuation of 15,000 Cherokee Indians.They suffered hunger, famine, and exhaustion. About 7,000 Indians died during this time
57Industrialization and Urbanization The United States transformed itself from a rural , agricultural nation to an urban, industrialized one.World Power and Domestic ChangeAs the 20th century began the US was the dominant economic and political power in the Western Hemisphere.US became a Superpower!