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The History and Government of the United States

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1 The History and Government of the United States

2 Creating a Nation The U.S. occupies nearly 2/5 of North America.
It is the world’s 3rd largest country in both land area and population. For thousands of years, it has attracted people searching for a better life.

3 Many people settle the Land
Immigration and migration is a recurring event in the development of the United States. The Spaniards were the first Europeans to arrive in the 15th century. They searched the “New World” to find gold and other treasure.

4 Columbian Exchange The Columbian exchange was a two way transfer of a number of plant and animal species –as well as smallpox. Because of this some regions lost 90% of their original native population. At the time of the Columbian exchange, their were about 30 to 40 million Native Americans.


6 The French and English began to migrate to the “New World” in the 1600’s and 1700’s.
The French settled along the St. Lawrence river in what is now Canada. The English settled to the South-on the rivers and bays along the Atlantic coast. The English made their first permanent settlement in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607


8 George Washington Commander in Chief
First President of the United States.

9 Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was the Third President of the United States He was a lead drafter of the Declaration of Independence, and was one of the most influential founding fathers. July 4, 1776

10 Creating a Nation Unalienable Rights: are the fundamental principles on which Thomas Jefferson based the Declaration of Independence on. He got the ideas from the enlightenment philosopher John Locke. Right to life Right to liberty Right to pursue happiness

11 US Constitution

12 Constitutional Convention 1787
55 delegates met in Philadelphia. All the states were there except Rhode Island. They met in secret. Oldest delegate was Ben Franklin, the best looking was Alexander Hamilton. September 17, 1787, they wrote a new constitution. BIGGEST PROBLEM: SMALL STATES vs. LARGE STATES.

13 Representation in US Congress
Senate 2 Senators per each state. Population does not matter. House of Representatives # of Representatives is based on the population of the each state

14 US Constitution-September 17, 1787
US Constitution is in 3 parts: Preamble- Introduction Seven Articles Bill of Rights ( was added on later) & Amendments (26) Federalists- supporters of the Constitution Anti-federalists-opponents of the Constitution

15 Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

16 Articles of the Constitution
There are 7 Articles to the Constitution. Article 1- Legislature Article 2 Executive Article 3 Judicial Article 4-Relations Between the States Article 5- Amendment Process Article 6- Supremacy of the Constitution Article 7- Ratification


18 Separation of Powers Founding fathers feared one person or group of people having too MUCH POWER! Legislative Branch —US Congress. creates/writes laws has power to tax, declare war. Executive Branch —President Carries out laws and represents US in foreign affairs. Judicial Branch —Supreme Court Interprets the laws. Decides if they are unconstitutional.

19 Checks and Balances Another way founding fathers made sure no branch of government became too powerful!

20 Bill of Rights

21 Bill of Rights 1791 Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances

22 Bill of Rights Amendment II Amendment III
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment III No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

23 Bill of Rights Amendment IV
The right from illegal searches and seizures. Amendment V No person shall be made to be a witness against themselves. No “Double Jeopardy.” Also, government cannot take private property for its own use with out consent from the owner.

24 Bill of Rights Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. Amendment VII In suits of civil law where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, one has the right to a trial by jury.

25 Bill of Rights Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

26 Bill of Rights Amendment IX States that peoples’ rights are NOT limited to those listed in the Constitution. Amendment X The powers NOT mentioned in the Constitution belong to the States.

27 FEDERALISM Power is divided between the national government (F) and the state government. (S) Separation of Power-3 branches Legislature Executive Judicial

28 Republicanism Form of Government in which people elect representatives to make and carry out Laws. Who represents El Paso in Washington DC? Who represents El Paso in Austin? TX Senator Shapleigh US Senator Cornyn US Senator Hutchison US Congressman Reyes

29 Popular Sovereignty What does that really mean?
Stems from the Enlightenment philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. The rule of law is based on the consent of the governed. What does that really mean? - 28k 29

30 The Westward Movement The new nation grew rapidly and settlers pushed westward. In 1803 the U.S. doubled in size. The U.S. bought the Louisiana Purchase from France. In the early 1800’s , immigrants from western Europe arrived to the Northeast part of the United States.

31 Civil War

32 Causes of the Civil War 1861-1865
The chief and immediate cause of the war was slavery. By 1860, the North and the South had developed into two very different regions. Divergent social, economic, and political points of view. The election of Abraham Lincoln as president. State’s Rights

33 Differences between northern and southern states:
__________ economy industrial agricultural __________ economy “_____ states” free slave


35 Division Sectionalism was growing as people were paying loyalty to their region. Above loyalty to their nation. This resulted in high political and economic tensions between the North and the South.

36 Dredd Scott v. Sanford Pivotal Case in US History
Was a slave who sued for his freedom in 1847 10 years later his case was heard by the Supreme Court In 1857 the US Supreme Court decided that all people of African ancestry -- slaves as well as those who were free -- could never become citizens of the United States.

37 Nullification Crisis leads to rift between North and South
The Crisis started when North Carolina opposed a raise in tariffs by the US federal government in 1828. North Carolina instituted nullification. President Jackson made it clear that all Federal Laws needed to be followed by ALL states! Nullification is a constitutional theory that gives an individual state the right to declare null and void any law passed by the United States Congress which the state deems unacceptable and/or unconstitutional.

38 Election of 1860 Stephen Douglas-Democratic Abraham Lincoln-Republican
16th President of the US

39 Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery on moral grounds, but he never thought that slaves were equal to the white man. He had wanted to free the slaves and then send them back to Africa. He would say different things to different audiences in order to get support.

40 Civil war continued… Lincoln was elected in 1860 and the South succeeded from the Union in 1861. Lincoln was determined to get the Confederate States back and thus we see on the onset of battles. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863. After Lincoln freed all slaves, they were then recruited into the Union Army.

41 Black Activists Sojourner Truth was an ex-slave involved in women’s rights and helped recruit black troops for the Union army. Harriet Tubman started the Underground railroad. 


43 Lincoln’s Assassination
April 14, 1865 Abraham Lincoln was assassinated while he was attending a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre with his wife and two friends. Lincoln died the following day at the home of William Petersen He was murdered by John Wilkes Booth


45 Slavery Many slaves – about half a million escaped during the war.
The 13th amendment outlawed slavery Andrew Johnson, the 17th president, vetoed bills to help blacks and he made it easier for the southern states to return to the Union after the Civil War.

46 Slavery



49 US Slavery

50 Although slavery was illegal, blacks in the south were treated like serfs working the plantation.
They were not allowed to rent or own property unless they made a contract with the owners of plantations.

51 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments

52 13th Amendment Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction Abolished Slavery! .

53 14th Amendment The amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves. It did this by prohibiting states from denying or abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, depriving any person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying to any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. *It is now regarded as one of the most important components of the Constitution!

54 15th Amendment Granted blacks the right to vote
“The right of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be divided or abridged by the U.S. or by any state on account of race, color, or precious condition of servitude”

55 Industrial and Urban Society
In the second half of the 19th century many Americans were on the move. Westward movement – hundreds of thousands of people left by wagon to the Frontier.

56 Expansion With the westward expansion many Indians were removed from their land The Trail of Tears was named after the evacuation of 15,000 Cherokee Indians. They suffered hunger, famine, and exhaustion. About 7,000 Indians died during this time

57 Industrialization and Urbanization
The United States transformed itself from a rural , agricultural nation to an urban, industrialized one. World Power and Domestic Change As the 20th century began the US was the dominant economic and political power in the Western Hemisphere. US became a Superpower!

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