Presentation on theme: "The costs of reducing PM 10 emissions and concentrations in the UK A project carried out by AEA Technology for the UK Department of the Environment, Transport."— Presentation transcript:
The costs of reducing PM 10 emissions and concentrations in the UK A project carried out by AEA Technology for the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) - Contract No EPG 1/8/59 Presented by Mike J Woodfield Howard J Rudd, Keith J Vincent JohnR Stedman & Ian T Marlowe
Slide 2 Objectives Identify main sources and their emissions Identify possible emission reduction measures and their costs Construct cost curves for reductions in emissions Use dispersion modelling to convert the emission cost curves into cost curves based on concentration. Develop these curves for different years from 1997 to 2015 inclusive, with particular interest for 2003 to Carry out the analysis both nationally and for a number of carefully chosen regions in the UK. Identify the effect of emission reduction measures on emissions of other pollutants.
Slide 3 Emission sources Other industry (small processes)
Slide 4 Emission sources Major source is coal-fired stations Gas-fired stations report zero particulate emissions (although this is unlikely) Only a few oil-fired stations Power Stations
Slide 5 Emission sources Power Stations Coal fired Power Stations in England & Wales, 1999
Slide 7 Electrostatic precipitators 1eliminate leaks to reduce air ingress 2(for combustion processes) optimise combustion and eliminate excess air 3improve the voltage control system 4optimise the rapping sequence 5reduce the gas velocity through the device 6replace the unit with a newer more efficient design Improving collection efficiency
Slide 8 Electrostatic precipitators Assume all UK power stations have already achieved a stack concentration of 50mg/m 3 by applying measures 1 to 4 above. Table shows costs for option 5 above Improving collection efficiency
Slide 9 Fuel Switching Close down old coal fired plants Replace with efficient modern CCGT stations Capital cost of new CCGT station = £300/kWe of generating capacity Fuel cost saving = £3,000/MW of generating capacity Overall cost = £5,600/tonne abated
Slide 10 FGD Capital cost = £100M Operating cost = £2M/year Overall cost = £39,000/tonne abated 2000 MW power Station
Slide 11 Cost Curve
Slide 12 Dispersion modelling Population weighted annual arithmetic mean concentration Contribution of each emission source Nationally and for 6 case study regions
Slide 13 Regional Analysis
Slide 14 Concentration cost curve
Slide 15 Conclusions 1 Many measures for reducing PM10 emissions are very expensive in terms of the cost per tonne abated. Reducing emissions below 80 kte/y is virtually impossible using measures applied to stationary sources alone. Reducing emissions to about 100kte may be feasible, although the costs to industry would still be quite high.
Slide 16 Conclusions 2 The contribution of stationary sources to ambient concentrations, both nationally and in the case study regions, are all small compared with the contribution of road transport Measurements to better characterise: Domestic gas combustion and Quarrying would be highly beneficial