Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Pneumatic Components Build a Working Pneumatic Circuit"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Pneumatic Components Build a Working Pneumatic Circuit Review These SlidesandBuild a Working Pneumatic Circuit
2 Introduction to Pneumatic Components Bicycle PumpEnergy TransformationSolenoid ValveEnergy ControlStorage Reservoir Energy StoragePneumatic Cylinder or Linear ActuatorEnergy Transformation3 Way Shut Off ValveEnergy ControlOrder of Air FlowRegulatorEnergy Control
3 Bicycle Pump Piston Rod Pump Handle Pump Tube or Cylinder Charges thePneumatic BatteryPump HandlePump Tube or CylinderConverts Mechanical Energy into thePotential Energy of Pressurized AirPressure GaugeFill ValveWith Locking LeverYou can “Feel” the energy you are expending when pumping the reservoir up to pressure. The work you did compressing the air into the reservoir is now available to the pneumatic system you build. Each component either stores, controls or transforms the pressurized air you pumped into the cylinder.PistonFoot Stand
4 Energy Stored as Compressed Air Pneumatic ReservoirEnergy Stored as Compressed AirOne Touch QuickConnect FittingConnects to 3 Way ValveSchrader Valve Connects to PumpAir StorageCapacity is a Function ofPressure x Volume = CapacityThe reservoir is like a battery. Instead of housing stored chemical energy that can be released as electrical energy, the reservoir stores energy in the form of compressed air. Some of the work done in “Pumping” or pressurizing the reservoir can be converted back into useful work by the pneumatic cylinder or actuator. The capacity of the storage reservoir is a product of the internal pressure x the internal volume. Stored air capacity is always given in terms of standard pressure. Standard pressure is recognized as being average atmospheric pressure equal to approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch or megapascal. Note 1 Megapascal (Mpa) = Approximately 145 Pounds per Square Inch (psi). This is the range of the pressure gauge on the regulator.Mounting Nuts (2)
5 Three Operational States or Modes 3 Way ValveFinger KnobShown in Off PositionInlet PortFrom ReservoirOutlet PortTo RegulatorDirection ArrowOn Valve BodyThree way valves are used to activate or pressurize the pneumatic circuit. The vlave vents or depressurizes the downstream components each time it is turned off. This is an important safety feature. Every pneumatic circuit should include a 3 way venting valve. By depressurizing the downstream components, the working pneumatic components are deactivated and the mechanisms they control cannot be operated accidentally or inadvertently.Three Operational States or ModesOFF – Vent – On
6 Air Flow Directional Arrow The RegulatorControlled Pressure SidePressure Gauge0-150 psi0-1 MPaPressure Adjusting Knob*Pull out before turning*Push in to lock*Turn Clockwiseto RaisePressure.Air Flow Directional ArrowThe regulator controls the air pressure of the pneumatic circuit components downstream of the regulator. Designing machines that work effectively with lower pressures means you will have more effective reservoir capacity.High Pressure InletLower Pressure SettingsMeans Less Air Consumption
8 The Regulator continued Note: Be certain toverify the direction ofair flow through the regulator.The incoming air (fromThe 3 Way Valve)Enters the port marked with an arrow.
9 3/2 Solenoid Valve Valve Body Actuator Port “A2” Pressure Port “P1” From RegulatorThe Solenoid Valve has 3 ports, the Pressure inlet Port P1, The Actuator Port A2, and the Exhaust Port E. The solenoid has two modes of operation, on and off. In the de energized state, the pressure port is closed. This solenoid is specified as a 3/2 NC (Normally Closed) solenoid valve. Be certain to connect the P1 port to the pressure side or regulator side of the circuit. Connect the A2 port to the actuator.Because the solenoid valve is electrically operated it can be controlled using a transistor H-bridge controller. The GEARS-IDS valve controller allows interfacing the operation of this valve with either PWM RC controllers, or microprocessor control.Exhaust Port “E”Solenoid Wires
10 The Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator Speed ValvePiston and RodClevisOne Touch Quick Connect FittingThe Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator transforms the stored energy of compressed air into useful work. The cylinder stroke refers to the difference between the actuators length at full retraction and full extension. The bore refers to the interior diameter of the cylinder body. The theoretical force of the piston is a product of the Pressure x the Area of the piston. Note that the pressurized air must enter and exit the cylinder from the same port. The Speed valve increases and retards the flow of air into or out of the cylinder inlet port.Cylinder BodyPneumatic Mounting BracketCylinder Force = Pressure x Piston Area
12 Pneumatic Component Connections Build ItTest ItUse It
13 After Building and Testing the Pneumatic Circuit Determine These Performance CharacteristicsHow many times will the pneumatic cylinder cycle at 50 psi when the reservoir is charged to 150 psi?What is the theoretical force of the piston at 50 psi?What is the actual force of the piston at 50 psi?What is the speed of the piston in inches per second at 50 psi?Does pressure affect speed and if so, can you measure and graph the relationship?Which answers can be found mathematically?Which should be measured directly?