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Pneumatic Components & Systems Team 1640 Clem McKown – mentor November 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Pneumatic Components & Systems Team 1640 Clem McKown – mentor November 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pneumatic Components & Systems Team 1640 Clem McKown – mentor November 2008

2 Topics What are pneumatics? What are pneumatics good for? How pneumatics work The pneumatic system Variations on the theme

3 What are pneumatics Mechanisms which use air pressure to apply mechanical force and displacement (work) The pneumatic devices we use are basically binary actuators – either retracted or extended Retracted Cylinder Extended Cylinder

4 What are pneumatics good for? Mechanisms requiring (2) discrete states Gear shifters Gripper articulation Lifters Brakes …and a significant force or displacement

5 Strengths

6 Simple

7 Strengths Simple Easy to control

8 Strengths Simple Easy to control Can apply a lot of force from a small, light package

9 Strengths Simple Easy to control Can apply a lot of force from a small, light package Force is limited by air pressure and cylinder diameter

10 Strengths Simple Easy to control Can apply a lot of force from a small, light package Force is limited by air pressure and cylinder diameter No adverse consequence if cylinder is stopped (no stalled motors) or reversed – compressed air is a spring

11 Drawbacks

12 A significant weight “investment” (~10 lb m ) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device

13 Drawbacks A significant weight “investment” (~10 lb m ) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device Cylinders can be subject to damage

14 Drawbacks A significant weight “investment” (~10 lb m ) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device Cylinders can be subject to damage Repair impossible

15 Drawbacks A significant weight “investment” (~10 lb m ) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device Cylinders can be subject to damage Repair impossible Not well suited for non-binary actuation

16 In Industry Pneumatic actuators are extensively used by the Chemical Process Industry due to their intrinsic safety and their ability to fail safe (w/ spring return) 2-position pneumatic actuator driving a 4-way ball valve pneumatically driven flow control valves (butterfly type)

17 How it works Piston Cylinder Seals ⅛” NPTF Air Port (Extension) ⅛” NPTF Air Port (Retraction) Rod Force = Area (in 2 ) x  Pressure (lb f /in 2 ) Extension Area = Cylinder CS Area Subtract Rod CS Area for Retraction Typically, pressure is applied to one port while the other is vented to atmosphere - so  P is regulated gauge pressure (60 psi max)

18 More works We may specify Cylinder Diameter – sets Force @ a pressure Stroke Length Mounting Options Rod Material Rod Extensions Spring Return …. Stroke Length

19 Cylinder Specs (Bimba DXP/DX/DP)

20 The pneumatic system I (the investment) Motor Compressor Pressure Switch Pressure Safety Valve High-Pressure Air Storage High-Pressure Air Storage Pressure Gauge Pressure Gauge Pressure Vent Valve Pressure Regulator High Pressure Low Pressure Users ControllerSpike

21 The pneumatic system II (the solenoid valve) Air Supply (Pressure) Vent B Vent A Port A Port B Supply/Vent Side Output Side AB VPV State A AB VPV State B All ports ⅛” NPTF

22 The pneumatic system III (device control) SpikeController Air Pressure A restrictor valve in Vent B slows extension speed without affecting retraction speed ¼” flexible tubing State A – Extends rod State B – Retracts rod

23 The pneumatic system III (device control) SpikeController Air Pressure A restrictor valve in Vent B slows extension speed without affecting retraction speed ¼” flexible tubing State A – Extends rod State B – Retracts rod If you are using pairs of cylinders which are activated together, they can be driven by common solenoids

24 Plumbing – Tubing Fittings Tee - SMC KQT07-00 Male Elbow - SMC KQL07-34S Male Connector - SMC KQH07-34S Restrictor Elbow - SMC NAS2201F-N01-07S

25 Something outside the box In 2006 Team 386 created high vacuum with cylinders

26 Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum Team 386 used suction to lift ringers, but was underwhelmed by the vacuum developed by venturi

27 Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum Retracting the smaller cylinder Team 386 used suction to lift ringers, but was underwhelmed by the vacuum developed by venturi

28 Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum Retracting the smaller cylinder Generates a high vacuum on the larger cylinder

29 Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum Retracting the smaller cylinder Generates a high vacuum on the larger cylinder Separate cylinder sets were used for each suction cup, providing redundancy

30 Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum Extending the smaller cylinder Breaks the vacuum Separate cylinder sets were used for each suction cup, providing redundancy Extending the small cylinders released the vacuum and dropped the ringer


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