9. Goggles Used to protect your eyes while in the lab
10. Triple beam balance Used to measure the mass of an object. Scientific unit of measure: (g) grams
11. Bunsen burner
12. Beaker tongs
13. Magnifying lens/hand lens
14. Hot plate
15. Graduated Cylinder Used to measure volume Scientific unit of measure: (L) Liters
16. Test tube holder/clamp
17. Test tube
18. Test tube rack
19. Corks/rubber stoppers
21. Thermometer Used to measure temperature Scientific unit of measure: (C) Celsius
22. Centigram balance Used to measure the mass of an object. Scientific unit of measure: (g) grams
24. Light microscope
25. Watch glass
27. Microscope slides
28. Erlenmeyer flask Used to measure volume Scientific unit of measure: (L) Liters
30. Test tube brush
31. Inoculating loop
32. Beaker Used to measure volume Scientific unit of measure: (L) Liters
33. Petri dish
34. Metric ruler Used to measure Distance Scientific unit of measure: (M) Meters
35. Dissecting probe
Section 2: Disciplines of Biology Start by looking over the prefix suffix worksheet Start by looking over the prefix suffix worksheet
What is biology? Prefix: bio- _______________ Suffix: -logy ______________ Living things The study of
The branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells Cytology
The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms Microbiology
The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals. Zoology
__________ is the scientific study of plant life Botany
Ecology The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments Living-living and living-nonliving interactions
Entomology The scientific study of insects
Anatomy The science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts
Genetics The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.
Physiology The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
Biochemistry The study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; biological chemistry; physiological chemistry.
Medicine Maintaining or restoring human health through its study, diagnosis, and treatment.
Taxonomy The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships
Palaeontology The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.
Marine Biology The scientific study of life in oceans or other marine environments.
Epidemiology The branch of biology that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations.
Characteristics, Needs and Chemistry Section: 3 Characteristics of Living Things
1. All living things contain cells. Cells – basic unit of structure and function. Unicellular – one cell. Multicellular – many cells.
2. Living things obtain and use materials and energy. Plants obtain their energy from sunlight. Animals obtain their energy from the food they eat.
3. All living things grow and develop. Grow – to get bigger Development – process that occurs in an organism that makes it more complex.
Growth and Development Children Grow- get bigger Develop- change body form Growth without development
4. Living things maintain a stable internal environment. Homeostasis- maintaining a stable internal environment Despite changes in the temperature of the environment, a human maintains a constant body temperature degrees Fahrenheit is normal for humans
5. All organisms respond to their surroundings. Stimulus – a change in an organisms surroundings. Response – reaction to a stimulus.
6. All living things reproduce. Reproduction – produce offspring. Asexual – One parent. Sexual – two parents.
7. All living things have a genetic code (DNA or RNA) A cat cannot litter of puppies. A dog cannot have kittens An organisms DNA codes for that specific organism
8. Taken as a group, living things change over time. Living things adapt to their environment. An adaptation is a charachteristic that helps an organism better survive or reproduce in an environment Plants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert. Desert Plants
THE NEEDS OF LIVING THINGS
1. Energy Autotrophs – make their own food and use it for energy. Heterotrophs – have to eat food to get energy.
2. All living things need water. Need water to break down materials and dissolve chemicals.
3. Living Space All organisms need a place for food water and shelter. There is a lot of competition over living space.
4. Stable internal conditions. Homeostasis – the maintenance of stable internal conditions.
Section 4: Science and the Scientific Method
Scientific Method at Work Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) Proposed theProposed the Theory of Spontaneous Generation –Organisms can arise from nonliving matter –Idea lasted almost 2000 years –Took multiple scientists and hundreds of years to disprove
occurred from 1668 to –Francesco Redi –John Needham –Lazzaro Spallanzani –Louis Pasteur theory of biogenesis –Led to todays new theory of biogenesis: Life must come from life under normal conditions The Slow Death of Spontaneous Generation
OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Uncovered jars Covered jars Several days pass Maggots appear No maggots appear Responding Variable: whether maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Section 1-2 Francesco Redis Experiment on Spontaneous Generation (1668) Go to Section:
John Needham (1745) Everyone knew that boiling killed microorganisms (common knowledge)Everyone knew that boiling killed microorganisms (common knowledge) John Needham proposed to test whether or not microorganisms appeared spontaneously after boiling.John Needham proposed to test whether or not microorganisms appeared spontaneously after boiling. He tried to disprove Redis conclusionHe tried to disprove Redis conclusion –He boiled chicken broth, –put it into a flask, –sealed it, –and waited sure enough, microorganisms grew. Needham claimed victory for spontaneous generation.sure enough, microorganisms grew. Needham claimed victory for spontaneous generation.
Gravy is boiled. Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Gravy is boiled. Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-10 Lazzaro Spallanzanis Experiment Go to Section:
The people said to Spallanzani You missed a variable, for life to be generated you need contact with the air They said air was the vital force needed for life
Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Louis Pasteurs Experiment Go to Section:
Explaining the evidence Hypothesis- a statement that is a possible explanation for a set of observations or answers to a scientific question A hypothesis must be testable. (not useful if it cant be tested) Ex. The moon is made of cheese Hypothesis are educated statements that are testable but many times false when tested
Scientific Theory Science Theory- an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained by many different investigations and observations. A theory remains valid only if every new piece of information supports it. If available information does not support a theory, then the theory is disproved. New discoveries and in science occasionally change a theory.
Scientific Law Scientific Law - describes a natural event; it is a fact Universal Law of Gravity All objects attract other objects
Nature of Science Science never reaches Fact Constantly new technologies and ideas arise that disprove current theories. Science gets as close to Fact as possible as people fail to disprove a concept.
Recipe for Bees About 2000 years ago, a Roman poet wrote these directions for producing bees. Is this science and is this an experiment?
Yes! At the time with the current knowledge this could be repeated and have a similar result
The Goal of Science To investigate and understand nature To explain events in nature To use those explanations to make useful predictions
Intro Turn in your syllabus if you have not yet 1.What is spontaneous generation? 2.What did spontaneous generation advocates say was the vital force (or necessary variable needed for Spallanzanis experiment to produce life)? 3.How did Pasteur improve Spallanzanis experiment and contradict those advocates? 4.What are the goals of science?
The scientific method always starts with observation and you then state a problem What is the problem here?
Vocabulary Controlled experiment – a test of the effect of a single variable keeping all other variables the same. You change only one variable in an controlled experiment Constants- all variable that kept the same Variable – anything that you change or changes as a result of what you do My car wont start and I want to set up a controlled experiment. How would you do this?
Vocabulary Hypothesis - possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question. The plant is dying because it needs to be watered. It is a statement which is an educated guess and it is testable
Vocabulary Control group – In experiment this is the group that you compare your results to. Constants or controls are needed to eliminate alternate explanations of experimental results. For example, suppose a researcher feeds an experimental artificial sweetener to thirty laboratory rats and observes that eight of them subsequently die of dehydration. The underlying cause of death could be the sweetener itself or something unrelated.
Experimental group – In an experiment this is the group in which you change a variable on and compare to the control group In a controlled experiment you have a experimental group Vocabulary Experimental Group: Plant A (watered) Control Group: Plant B is left the same (not watered)
Vocabulary Experimental variable – The variable you change in an experimental group. This will be your independent variable Watered or not
Independent variable – factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as manipulated variable The cause Do you or dont you water the plant? Vocabulary
Dependant variable - factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variable Die Live The Effect – does the plant live or die? The dependent variable is dependant on the independent variable
Observation - use of one or more of the sensessight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes tasteto gather information –Qualitative observations involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted –Quantitative observations involve numbers Vocabulary
Data collection – collection of evidence; information gathered from observations Vocabulary
Data analysis - Observing your data, picking out the important results, and making sense of the data. Data is anything collected through observation in an experiment Vocabulary
Inference - logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience For example, researchers might test small quantities, or samples, of water from a reservoir. If samples collected from different parts of the reservoir are all clean enough to drink, the researchers may infer that all the water in the reservoir is safe to drink. Vocabulary
Conclusion - Using the evidence of an experiment to determine whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted(wrong). Vocabulary
Question How is an inference different than an observation?
Scientific Method State the Problem Form a Hypothesis Set Up a Controlled Experiment Record and Analyze Results Draw a Conclusion
State the Problem Scientific Method It Stinks!
Form a Hypothesis The room stinks because a rat died in a cabinet The room stinks because someone may have farted –Pick only one hypothesis to test, you can come back to the others if you conclude the first one is wrong. –Pick the most likely hypothesis to test first Scientific Method
Set Up a Controlled Experiment Have a control to compare your results to- in this case the room beforehand Only Change One Variable –The variable changed must make sense –I will turn on the exhaust and see if it still smells bad 5 minutes later –If it does not smell bad it was only something temporary Scientific Method
Record and Analyze Results It still smells bad after 5 minutes Scientific Method
Draw a Conclusion My Hypothesis about the flatulent was incorrect go back to step one and test another hypothesis Scientific Method
Do the Simpsons Scientific Method Review Worksheet Do the Writing a Hypothesis Worksheet
Graphs are a useful tool in data analysis There are many types When you use them depends on the data you are analyzing
A few types of graphs Line Graph Bar Graph Pie Graph There are times where one graph is far better than the others
Line Graphs A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on one another. The numbers along a side of the line graph are called the scale. John's Weight
This line graph shows how John's weight varied from the beginning of 1991 to the beginning of The weight scale runs vertically, while the time scale is on the horizontal axis. Following the gridlines up from the beginning of the years, we see that John's weight was 68 kg in 1991, 70 kg in 1992, 74 kg in 1993, 74 kg in 1994, and 73 kg in Examining the graph also tells us that John's weight increased during 1991 and 1995, stayed the same during 1991, and fell during John's Weight
What does this line graph show us? Car Value Versus the Mileage
This line graph shows the average value of a car versus the mileage on the car. When the car is new, it costs $ The more the car is driven, the more its value falls according to the curve above. Its value falls $2000 the first miles it is driven. When the mileage is 80000, the truck's value is about $4000. Car Value Versus the Mileage
Pie Chart A pie chart is a circle graph divided into pieces, each displaying the size of some related piece of information. Pie charts are used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole.
Pie Chart The pie chart shows the ingredients used to make a sausage and mushroom pizza. The fraction of each ingredient by weight is shown in the pie chart. We see that half of the pizza's weight comes from the crust. The mushrooms make up the smallest amount of the pizza by weight, since the slice corresponding to the mushrooms is smallest. Note that the sum of the decimal sizes of each slice is equal to 1 (the "whole" pizza"). Weight of sausage and mushroom pizza ingredients
What does this pie chart show? fractions of dogs in a dog competition
Bar Graphs Bar graphs consist of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars that show different values for each bar. The numbers along a side of the bar graph are called the scale. Fruit Sold
Bar Graphs This bar chart shows the weight in kilograms of some fruit sold one day by a local market. We can see that 52 kg of apples were sold, 40 kg of oranges were sold, and 8 kg of star fruit were sold. Fruit Sold
Double Bar Graph A double bar graph is similar to a regular bar graph, but gives 2 pieces of information for each item on the vertical axis, rather than just 1. What does this double bar graph show? Fruit Sold
Do the Kaibab Graphing Activity
Section 5: Metric Measurement
Metric Measurement Most scientists use the metric system and SI units when collecting data and performing experiments Metric System - decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10
Base SI Metric Units Mass = grams (g) Volume = Liters (L) Length = Meters (m) Density = grams per liter (g/L) Temperature = degrees Celsius (ºC)
Metric Prefixes These two measurements are different.These two measurements are different. 15 meters15 kilometers How?How?
Metric Prefixes These two measurements are different.These two measurements are different. 15 meters15 kilometers How?How? –One has a prefix
Metric Prefixes You will need to convert between different metric units like the followingYou will need to convert between different metric units like the following 15 meters15 kilometers How do you do this?How do you do this?
Metric Prefixes You will need to convert between different metric units like the followingYou will need to convert between different metric units like the following 15 meters15 kilometers How do you do this?How do you do this? –Know your prefixes and how they relate to the base unit
Metric Prefixes A prefix will make the unit bigger or smaller than the base unitA prefix will make the unit bigger or smaller than the base unit We will use the base unit meter in this exampleWe will use the base unit meter in this example But remember:But remember: Prefixes have the same number meaning when attached to other units like seconds, liters, etc.Prefixes have the same number meaning when attached to other units like seconds, liters, etc.
Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric PrefixesBigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: deca-Prefix: deca- Symbol: daSymbol: da Meaning: tenMeaning: ten 1 dam or decameter equals 10 meters1 dam or decameter equals 10 meters
Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric PrefixesBigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: hecto-Prefix: hecto- Symbol: hSymbol: h Meaning: one hundredMeaning: one hundred 1 hm or hectometer equals 100 meters1 hm or hectometer equals 100 meters
Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric PrefixesBigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: kilo-Prefix: kilo- Symbol: kSymbol: k Meaning: one thousandMeaning: one thousand 1 km or kilometer equals 1000 meters1 km or kilometer equals 1000 meters
Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric PrefixesBigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: mega-Prefix: mega- Symbol: M capital MSymbol: M capital M Meaning: one millionMeaning: one million 1 Mm or Megameter equals meters1 Mm or Megameter equals meters
Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric PrefixesSmaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: deci-Prefix: deci- Symbol: dSymbol: d Meaning: one tenthMeaning: one tenth 10 dm equals 1 m10 dm equals 1 m 1 dm
Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric PrefixesSmaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: centi-Prefix: centi- Symbol: cSymbol: c Meaning: one hundredthMeaning: one hundredth 100 cm equals 1 m100 cm equals 1 m 1 cm
Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric PrefixesSmaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: milli-Prefix: milli- Symbol: mSymbol: m Meaning: one thousandthMeaning: one thousandth 1000 mm equals 1 m1000 mm equals 1 m 1 mm
Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric PrefixesSmaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: micro-Prefix: micro- Symbol: µSymbol: µ Meaning: one millionthMeaning: one millionth µm equals 1 m µm equals 1 m Too small to read on a meter stickToo small to read on a meter stick
Metric Prefixes SI PREFIX Mega- kilo- hecto- deca- None deci- centi- milli- micro- Unit Symbol M k h da ---- d c m µ Meaning in words million thousand hundred ten ---- tenth hundredth thousandth millionth Mathematical meaning 1,000,000 1, /10 1/100 1/1000 1/
Conversions outside the metric system LENGTH 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = m 1 mi = 5280 ft = km 1 m = ft 1 km = mi MASS 1 oz = g 1 kg = 2.2 lb TIME 1 hr = 60 min = 3600 s 1 day = 24 h = 1.44 x 10 3 min = 8.64 x 10 4 s 1 yr = 365 days = x 10 7 s SPEED 1 mi/h = km/h = ft/s = m/s 1 km/h = mi/h = m/s = ft/s
Km hm dam m dm cm mm Arrange these in order of largest to smallest measure of length dm dam mmmhm mmmhm km cm km cm
Place a 1 in front of the unit that is bigger Next write how many of the smaller unit fit in the bigger unit
Doing a conversion Convert 65 m to km 1.Turn this into a question ?km = 65m
Doing a conversion Convert 65 m to km 1.Turn this into a question ?km = 65m 2. Draw the conversion line 3. Write the unit we are converting out of on the opposite side of the line (so it will cancel out later) 4. Write what you are converting into on the opposite side 5. Place a 1 next to the larger unit 6. Place the correct conversion factor next to the other m km
Doing a conversion ?km = 65m m km Cross out the units that have canceled out 8. Check to see if you are now at the desired unit 9. If yes.. Grab a calculator If no.. You will need another conversion line
Doing a conversion Using your calculator to get a successful result 1. 1.Open parenthesis, multiply everything in the numerator, close parenthesis 2. 2.Hit divide 3. 3.Open parenthesis, multiply everything in the numerator, close parenthesis 4. 4.solve ( x ) ( ) 0.065
Get some practice 1.32 cm to m ?m = 32 cm
Get some practice minutes to seconds ?s = 14 min
Get some practice cL to L ?L = 507 cL
Get some practice m to km ?km = m or 5.7 x10 -5
Get some practice cm 3 to mL ?mL = 13 cm 3 (1cm 3 = 1 mL)
L to mL ?mL= 3.004L
7. 86 kg to g ?g = 86 kg
x 10 3 mi to km ?km = 1.2 x 10 3 mi (0.62mi = 1km)
ft to inches ?in = 0.15ft (1ft = 12in)
Next level of difficulty 1.56 km to mm ?mm= 56 km Not there yet… need another conversion line Now were there Calculator time
2. 29 kg to cg ?cg = 29 kg = cg or 2.9 x 10 6 cg
km to µm ? µm = km = µm or 5.46 x 10 8 µm
4. 69,000 dg to kg ?kg = 69,000 dg = 6.9 kg
Next level of problem km/min to m/s ? m = 25 km s 1 min 2. The numerator is now what you want, time to do the same with the denominator 1. Do exactly what we did before to convert 3. To cancel out a denominator we need to start by placing the same unit up top The trick here is ignoring the part of the unit you are not working with = m/s