46 AnatomyThe science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts
47 GeneticsThe branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.
48 PhysiologyThe biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
49 BiochemistryThe study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; biological chemistry; physiological chemistry.
50 MedicineMaintaining or restoring human health through its study, diagnosis, and treatment.
51 TaxonomyThe classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships
52 PalaeontologyThe study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.
53 Marine BiologyThe scientific study of life in oceans or other marine environments.
54 EpidemiologyThe branch of biology that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations.
55 Characteristics, Needs and Chemistry Section: 3 Characteristics of Living ThingsCharacteristics, Needs and Chemistry
56 1. All living things contain cells. Cells – basic unit of structure and function.Unicellular – one cell.Multicellular – many cells.
57 2. Living things obtain and use materials and energy. Plants obtain theirenergy from sunlight.Animals obtain their energy from the food they eat.
58 3. All living things grow and develop. Grow – to get biggerDevelopment – process that occurs in an organism that makes it more complex.
59 Growth and Development Children Grow- get biggerDevelop- change body formGrowth without development
60 4. Living things maintain a stable internal environment. Homeostasis- maintaining a stable internal environmentDespite changes in the temperature of the environment, a human maintains a constant body temperature.98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is normal for humans
61 5. All organisms respond to their surroundings. Stimulus – a change in an organism’s surroundings.Response – reaction to a stimulus.
62 6. All living things reproduce. Reproduction – produce offspring.Asexual – One parent.Sexual – two parents.
63 7. All living things have a genetic code (DNA or RNA) A cat cannot litter of puppies.A dog cannot have kittensAn organisms DNA codes for that specific organism
64 8. Taken as a group, living things change over time. Living things adapt to their environment.An adaptation is a charachteristic that helps an organism better survive or reproduce in an environmentPlants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert.Desert Plants
71 Scientific Method at Work Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)Proposed the Theory of Spontaneous GenerationOrganisms can arise from nonliving matterIdea lasted almost 2000 yearsTook multiple scientists and hundreds of years to disprove
72 The Slow Death of Spontaneous Generation occurred from 1668 to 1859.Francesco RediJohn NeedhamLazzaro SpallanzaniLouis PasteurLed to todays new theory of biogenesis: Life must come from life under normal conditions
73 Francesco Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation (1668) Section 1-2OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.PROCEDUREUncovered jarsCovered jarsControlled Variables:jars, type of meat,location, temperature,timeSeveraldays passManipulated Variables:gauze covering thatkeeps flies away frommeatResponding Variable:whether maggotsappearMaggots appearNo maggots appearCONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.Go to Section:
74 John Needham (1745)Everyone knew that boiling killed microorganisms (common knowledge)John Needham proposed to test whether or not microorganisms appeared spontaneously after boiling.He tried to disprove Redi’s conclusionHe boiled chicken broth,put it into a flask,sealed it,and waitedsure enough, microorganisms grew. Needham claimed victory for spontaneous generation.
75 Figure 1-10 Lazzaro Spallanzani’s Experiment Section 1-2Gravy is boiled.Flask isopen.Gravy is teemingwith microorganisms.Flask issealed.Gravy is free ofmicroorganisms.Gravy is boiled.Go to Section:
76 The people said to Spallanzani “You missed a variable, for life to be generated you need contact with the air”They said air was the “vital force” needed for life
77 teeming with microorganisms. Figure Louis Pasteur’s ExperimentBroth isteeming with microorganisms.Section 1-2Curved neckis removed.Broth is free ofmicroorganismsfor a year.Broth is boiled.Go to Section:
78 Explaining the evidence Hypothesis- a statement that is a possible explanation for a set of observations or answers to a scientific questionA hypothesis must be testable. (not useful if it can’t be tested)Ex. The moon is made of cheeseHypothesis are educated statements that are testable but many times false when tested
79 Scientific TheoryScience Theory- an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained by many different investigations and observations.A theory remains valid only if every new piece of information supports it.If available information does not support a theory, then the theory is disproved. New discoveries and in science occasionally change a theory.
80 Scientific LawScientific Law - describes a natural event; it is a factUniversal Law of GravityAll objects attract other objects
81 Nature of Science Science never reaches “Fact” Constantly new technologies and ideas arise that disprove current theories.Science gets as close to “Fact” as possible as people fail to disprove a concept.
82 Recipe for Bees About 2000 years ago, a Roman poet wrote these directions for producing bees. Is this science and is this an experiment?
83 Yes! At the time with the current knowledge this could be repeated and have a similar result
84 The Goal of Science To investigate and understand nature To explain events in natureTo use those explanations to make useful predictions
85 Intro Turn in your syllabus if you have not yet What is spontaneous generation?What did spontaneous generation advocates say was the vital force (or necessary variable needed for Spallanzani’s experiment to produce life)?How did Pasteur improve Spallanzani’s experiment and contradict those advocates?What are the goals of science?
86 The scientific method always starts with observation and you then “state a problem” What is the problem here?
87 VocabularyControlled experiment – a test of the effect of a single variable keeping all other variables the same.You change “only one variable” in an controlled experimentConstants- all variable that kept the sameVariable – anything that you change or changes as a result of what you doMy car wont start and I want to set up a controlled experiment. How would you do this?
88 VocabularyHypothesis - possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.The plant is dying because it needs to be watered.It is a statement which is an educated guess and it is testable
89 VocabularyControl group – In experiment this is the group that you compare your results to.Constants or controls are needed to eliminate alternate explanations of experimental results. For example, suppose a researcher feeds an experimental artificial sweetener to thirty laboratory rats and observes that eight of them subsequently die of dehydration. The underlying cause of death could be the sweetener itself or something unrelated.
90 VocabularyExperimental group – In an experiment this is the group in which you change a variable on and compare to the control groupIn a controlled experiment you have a experimental groupControl Group: Plant B is left the same (not watered)Experimental Group: Plant A(watered)
91 VocabularyExperimental variable – The variable you change in an experimental group.This will be your independent variableWatered or not
92 VocabularyIndependent variable – factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as manipulated variable“The cause”Do you or don’t you water the plant?
93 Vocabulary Die “The Effect” – does the plant live or die? Live Dependant variable - factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variableDie“The Effect” – does the plant live or die?The dependent variable is dependant on the independent variableLive
94 VocabularyObservation - use of one or more of the senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste—to gather informationQualitative observations involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or countedQuantitative observations involve numbers
95 VocabularyData collection – collection of evidence; information gathered from observations
96 VocabularyData analysis - Observing your data, picking out the important results, and making sense of the data.Data is anything collected through observation in an experiment
97 VocabularyInference - logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experienceFor example, researchers might test small quantities, or samples, of water from a reservoir. If samples collected from different parts of the reservoir are all clean enough to drink, the researchers may infer that all the water in the reservoir is safe to drink.
98 VocabularyConclusion - Using the evidence of an experiment to determine whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted(wrong).
99 QuestionHow is an inference different than an observation?
100 Scientific Method State the Problem Form a Hypothesis Set Up a Controlled ExperimentRecord and Analyze ResultsDraw a Conclusion
102 Form a Hypothesis Scientific Method The room stinks because a rat died in a cabinetThe room stinks because someone may have fartedPick only one hypothesis to test, you can come back to the others if you conclude the first one is wrong.Pick the most likely hypothesis to test first
103 Set Up a Controlled Experiment Scientific MethodSet Up a Controlled ExperimentHave a control to compare your results to- in this case the room beforehandOnly Change One VariableThe variable changed must make senseI will turn on the exhaust and see if it still smells bad 5 minutes laterIf it does not smell bad it was only something temporary
104 Record and Analyze Results Scientific MethodRecord and Analyze ResultsIt still smells bad after 5 minutes
105 Draw a Conclusion Scientific Method My Hypothesis about the flatulent was incorrect go back to step one and test another hypothesis
106 Do the Simpsons Scientific Method Review Worksheet Do the Writing a Hypothesis Worksheet
107 Graphs are a useful tool in data analysis There are many typesWhen you use them depends on the data you are analyzing
108 A few types of graphsLine GraphBar GraphPie GraphThere are times where one graph is far better than the others
109 Line Graphs John's Weight A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on one another.The numbers along a side of the line graph are called the scale.John's Weight
110 This line graph shows how John's weight varied from the beginning of 1991 to the beginning of 1995. The weight scale runs vertically, while the time scale is on the horizontal axis.Following the gridlines up from the beginning of the years, we see that John's weight was68 kg in 1991,70 kg in 1992,74 kg in 1993,74 kg in 1994, and73 kg in 1995.Examining the graph also tells us that John's weight increased during 1991 and 1995, stayed the same during 1991, and fell during 1994.John's Weight
111 What does this line graph show us? Car Value Versus the Mileage
112 Car Value Versus the Mileage This line graph shows the average value of a car versus the mileage on the car.When the car is new, it costs $ The more the car is driven, the more its value falls according to the curve above.Its value falls $2000 the first miles it is driven. When the mileage is 80000, the truck's value is about $4000.
113 Pie ChartA pie chart is a circle graph divided into pieces, each displaying the size of some related piece of information.Pie charts are used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole.
114 Pie Chart Weight of sausage and mushroom pizza ingredients The pie chart shows the ingredients used to make a sausage and mushroom pizza.The fraction of each ingredient by weight is shown in the pie chart.We see that half of the pizza's weight comes from the crust. The mushrooms make up the smallest amount of the pizza by weight, since the slice corresponding to the mushrooms is smallest. Note that the sum of the decimal sizes of each slice is equal to 1 (the "whole" pizza").Weight of sausage and mushroom pizza ingredients
115 What does this pie chart show? fractions of dogs in a dog competition
116 Bar GraphsBar graphs consist of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars that show different values for each bar.The numbers along a side of the bar graph are called the scale.Fruit Sold
117 Bar GraphsThis bar chart shows the weight in kilograms of some fruit sold one day by a local market.We can see that 52 kg of apples were sold, 40 kg of oranges were sold, and 8 kg of star fruit were sold.Fruit Sold
118 Double Bar Graph Fruit Sold A double bar graph is similar to a regular bar graph, but gives 2 pieces of information for each item on the vertical axis, rather than just 1.What does this double bar graph show?Fruit Sold
121 Metric MeasurementMost scientists use the metric system and SI units when collecting data and performing experimentsMetric System - decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10
122 Base SI Metric Units Mass = grams (g) Volume = Liters (L) Length = Meters (m)Density = grams per liter (g/L)Temperature = degrees Celsius (ºC)
123 Metric Prefixes These two measurements are different. 15 meters 15 kilometersHow?
124 Metric Prefixes These two measurements are different. 15 meters 15 kilometersHow?One has a prefix
125 Metric PrefixesYou will need to convert between different metric units like the following15 meters 15 kilometersHow do you do this?
126 Metric PrefixesYou will need to convert between different metric units like the following15 meters 15 kilometersHow do you do this?Know your prefixes and how they relate to the base unit
127 Metric PrefixesA prefix will make the unit bigger or smaller than the base unitWe will use the base unit meter in this exampleBut remember:Prefixes have the same number meaning when attached to other units like seconds, liters, etc.
128 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: deca- Symbol: da Meaning: ten1 dam or decameter equals 10 meters1 m1 damor 10 m
129 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: hecto- Symbol: h Meaning: one hundred1 hm or hectometer equals 100 meters1 m1 hmor 100 m
130 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: kilo- Symbol: k Meaning: one thousand1 km or kilometer equals 1000 meters
131 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: mega- Symbol: M capital MMeaning: one million1 Mm or Megameter equals meters
132 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: deci- Symbol: d Meaning: one tenth10 dm equals 1 m1 dm
133 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: centi- Symbol: c Meaning: one hundredth100 cm equals 1 m1 cm
134 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: milli- Symbol: m Meaning: one thousandth1000 mm equals 1 m1 mm
135 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: micro- Symbol: µ Meaning: one millionthµm equals 1 mToo small to read on a meter stick
137 Conversions outside the metric system LENGTH1 in = 2.54 cm1 ft = m1 mi = 5280 ft = km1 m = ft1 km = miMASS1 oz = g1 kg = 2.2 lbTIME1 hr = 60 min = 3600 s1 day = 24 h = 1.44 x 103 min = 8.64 x 104 s1 yr = 365 days = x 107 sSPEED1 mi/h = km/h = ft/s = m/s1 km/h = mi/h = m/s = ft/s
138 Arrange these in order of largest to smallest measure of length dm dammm m hmkm cmKm hm dam m dm cm mm
139 Place a 1 in front of the unit that is bigger Next write how many of the smaller unit fit in the bigger unit110001110001000110001110100110001
140 This is what we started with This is what we want to find Doing a conversionConvert 65 m to kmTurn this into a question?km = 65mThis is what we started withThis is what we want to find
141 Doing a conversion Convert 65 m to km ?km = 65m 1 km 1000 m Turn this into a question?km = 65m1km1000m2. Draw the conversion line3. Write the unit we are converting out of on the opposite side of the line (so it will cancel out later)4. Write what you are converting into on the opposite side5. Place a 1 next to the larger unit6. Place the correct conversion factor next to the other
142 Doing a conversion ?km = 65m 1 km 1000 m 7. Cross out the units that have canceled out8. Check to see if you are now at the desired unit9. If yes.. Grab a calculatorIf no.. You will need another conversion line
143 Doing a conversion ( x ) 65 1 0.065 ( ) 1000 0.065( )1000Using your calculator to get a successful resultOpen parenthesis, multiply everything in the numerator, close parenthesisHit dividesolve
157 The units are now the same… Next level of problemThe trick here is ignoring the part of the unit you are not working with5. 25 km/min to m/s ? m = 25 km s 1 min= m/s1. Do exactly what we did before to convert2. The numerator is now what you want, time to do the same with the denominatorThe units are now the same…Time to calculate3. To cancel out a denominator we need to start by placing the same unit up top