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Biology Intro Mr. Holden Fall 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology Intro Mr. Holden Fall 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology Intro Mr. Holden Fall 2012

2 Intro Section 1: Basic Lab Equipment

3 1. Dissecting pan

4 2. Dissecting pins

5 3. Forceps

6 4. Dissecting scissors

7 5. Blunt probe

8 6. Scalpel

9 7. Spatula

10 8. Glass stirring rod

11 9. Goggles Used to protect your eyes while in the lab

12 10. Triple beam balance Used to measure the mass of an object. Scientific unit of measure: (g) grams

13 11. Bunsen burner

14 12. Beaker tongs

15 13. Magnifying lens/hand lens

16 14. Hot plate

17 15. Graduated Cylinder Used to measure volume Scientific unit of measure: (L) Liters

18 16. Test tube holder/clamp

19 17. Test tube

20 18. Test tube rack

21 19. Corks/rubber stoppers

22 20. Pipette

23 21. Thermometer Used to measure temperature Scientific unit of measure: (C) Celsius

24 22. Centigram balance Used to measure the mass of an object. Scientific unit of measure: (g) grams

25 23. Apron

26 24. Light microscope

27 25. Watch glass

28 26. Coverslips

29 27. Microscope slides

30 28. Erlenmeyer flask Used to measure volume Scientific unit of measure: (L) Liters

31 29. Funnel

32 30. Test tube brush

33 31. Inoculating loop

34 32. Beaker Used to measure volume Scientific unit of measure: (L) Liters

35 33. Petri dish

36 34. Metric ruler Used to measure Distance Scientific unit of measure: (M) Meters

37 35. Dissecting probe

38 Section 2: Disciplines of Biology
Start by looking over the prefix suffix worksheet

39 What is biology? Living things The study of
Prefix: bio- _______________ Suffix: -logy ______________ The study of

40 Cytology The branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells

41 Microbiology The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms

42 Zoology The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals.

43 __________ is the scientific study of plant life

44 Ecology The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments Living-living and living-nonliving interactions

45 Entomology The scientific study of insects

46 Anatomy The science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts

47 Genetics The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.

48 Physiology The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts

49 Biochemistry The study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; biological chemistry; physiological chemistry.

50 Medicine Maintaining or restoring human health through its study, diagnosis, and treatment.

51 Taxonomy The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships

52 Palaeontology The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.

53 Marine Biology The scientific study of life in oceans or other marine environments.

54 Epidemiology The branch of biology that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations.

55 Characteristics, Needs and Chemistry
Section: 3 Characteristics of Living Things Characteristics, Needs and Chemistry

56 1. All living things contain cells.
Cells – basic unit of structure and function. Unicellular – one cell. Multicellular – many cells.

57 2. Living things obtain and use materials and energy.
Plants obtain their energy from sunlight. Animals obtain their energy from the food they eat.

58 3. All living things grow and develop.
Grow – to get bigger Development – process that occurs in an organism that makes it more complex.

59 Growth and Development
Children Grow- get bigger Develop- change body form Growth without development

60 4. Living things maintain a stable internal environment.
Homeostasis- maintaining a stable internal environment Despite changes in the temperature of the environment, a human maintains a constant body temperature. 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is normal for humans

61 5. All organisms respond to their surroundings.
Stimulus – a change in an organism’s surroundings. Response – reaction to a stimulus.

62 6. All living things reproduce.
Reproduction – produce offspring. Asexual – One parent. Sexual – two parents.

63 7. All living things have a genetic code (DNA or RNA)
A cat cannot litter of puppies. A dog cannot have kittens An organisms DNA codes for that specific organism

64 8. Taken as a group, living things change over time.
Living things adapt to their environment. An adaptation is a charachteristic that helps an organism better survive or reproduce in an environment Plants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert. Desert Plants


66 1. Energy Autotrophs – make their own food and use it for energy.
Heterotrophs – have to eat food to get energy.

67 2. All living things need water.
Need water to break down materials and dissolve chemicals.

68 3. Living Space All organisms need a place for food water and shelter.
There is a lot of competition over living space.

69 4. Stable internal conditions.
Homeostasis – the maintenance of stable internal conditions.

70 Section 4: Science and the Scientific Method

71 Scientific Method at Work
Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) Proposed the Theory of Spontaneous Generation Organisms can arise from nonliving matter Idea lasted almost 2000 years Took multiple scientists and hundreds of years to disprove

72 The Slow Death of Spontaneous Generation
occurred from 1668 to 1859. Francesco Redi John Needham Lazzaro Spallanzani Louis Pasteur Led to todays new theory of biogenesis: Life must come from life under normal conditions

73 Francesco Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation (1668)
Section 1-2 OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Uncovered jars Covered jars Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Several days pass Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Responding Variable: whether maggots appear Maggots appear No maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Go to Section:

74 John Needham (1745) Everyone knew that boiling killed microorganisms (common knowledge) John Needham proposed to test whether or not microorganisms appeared spontaneously after boiling. He tried to disprove Redi’s conclusion He boiled chicken broth, put it into a flask, sealed it, and waited sure enough, microorganisms grew. Needham claimed victory for spontaneous generation.

75 Figure 1-10 Lazzaro Spallanzani’s Experiment
Section 1-2 Gravy is boiled. Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms. Gravy is boiled. Go to Section:

76 The people said to Spallanzani
“You missed a variable, for life to be generated you need contact with the air” They said air was the “vital force” needed for life

77 teeming with microorganisms.
Figure Louis Pasteur’s Experiment Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Curved neck is removed. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Broth is boiled. Go to Section:

78 Explaining the evidence
Hypothesis- a statement that is a possible explanation for a set of observations or answers to a scientific question A hypothesis must be testable. (not useful if it can’t be tested) Ex. The moon is made of cheese Hypothesis are educated statements that are testable but many times false when tested

79 Scientific Theory Science Theory- an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained by many different investigations and observations. A theory remains valid only if every new piece of information supports it. If available information does not support a theory, then the theory is disproved.  New discoveries and in science occasionally change a theory.

80 Scientific Law Scientific Law - describes a natural event; it is a fact Universal Law of Gravity All objects attract other objects

81 Nature of Science Science never reaches “Fact”
Constantly new technologies and ideas arise that disprove current theories. Science gets as close to “Fact” as possible as people fail to disprove a concept.

82 Recipe for Bees About 2000 years ago, a Roman poet wrote these directions for producing bees.
Is this science and is this an experiment?

83 Yes! At the time with the current knowledge this could be repeated and have a similar result

84 The Goal of Science To investigate and understand nature
To explain events in nature To use those explanations to make useful predictions

85 Intro Turn in your syllabus if you have not yet
What is spontaneous generation? What did spontaneous generation advocates say was the vital force (or necessary variable needed for Spallanzani’s experiment to produce life)? How did Pasteur improve Spallanzani’s experiment and contradict those advocates? What are the goals of science?

86 The scientific method always starts with observation and you then “state a problem”
What is the problem here?

87 Vocabulary Controlled experiment – a test of the effect of a single variable keeping all other variables the same. You change “only one variable” in an controlled experiment Constants- all variable that kept the same Variable – anything that you change or changes as a result of what you do My car wont start and I want to set up a controlled experiment. How would you do this?

88 Vocabulary Hypothesis - possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question. The plant is dying because it needs to be watered. It is a statement which is an educated guess and it is testable

89 Vocabulary Control group – In experiment this is the group that you compare your results to. Constants or controls are needed to eliminate alternate explanations of experimental results. For example, suppose a researcher feeds an experimental artificial sweetener to thirty laboratory rats and observes that eight of them subsequently die of dehydration. The underlying cause of death could be the sweetener itself or something unrelated.

90 Vocabulary Experimental group – In an experiment this is the group in which you change a variable on and compare to the control group In a controlled experiment you have a experimental group Control Group: Plant B is left the same (not watered) Experimental Group: Plant A (watered)

91 Vocabulary Experimental variable – The variable you change in an experimental group. This will be your independent variable Watered or not

92 Vocabulary Independent variable – factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as manipulated variable “The cause” Do you or don’t you water the plant?

93 Vocabulary Die “The Effect” – does the plant live or die? Live
Dependant variable - factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variable Die “The Effect” – does the plant live or die? The dependent variable is dependant on the independent variable Live

94 Vocabulary Observation - use of one or more of the senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste—to gather information Qualitative observations involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted Quantitative observations involve numbers

95 Vocabulary Data collection – collection of evidence; information gathered from observations

96 Vocabulary Data analysis - Observing your data, picking out the important results, and making sense of the data. Data is anything collected through observation in an experiment

97 Vocabulary Inference - logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience For example, researchers might test small quantities, or samples, of water from a reservoir. If samples collected from different parts of the reservoir are all clean enough to drink, the researchers may infer that all the water in the reservoir is safe to drink.

98 Vocabulary Conclusion - Using the evidence of an experiment to determine whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted(wrong).

99 Question How is an inference different than an observation?

100 Scientific Method State the Problem Form a Hypothesis
Set Up a Controlled Experiment Record and Analyze Results Draw a Conclusion 

101 Scientific Method State the Problem It Stinks!

102 Form a Hypothesis Scientific Method
The room stinks because a rat died in a cabinet The room stinks because someone may have farted Pick only one hypothesis to test, you can come back to the others if you conclude the first one is wrong. Pick the most likely hypothesis to test first

103 Set Up a Controlled Experiment
Scientific Method Set Up a Controlled Experiment Have a control to compare your results to- in this case the room beforehand Only Change One Variable The variable changed must make sense I will turn on the exhaust and see if it still smells bad 5 minutes later If it does not smell bad it was only something temporary

104 Record and Analyze Results
Scientific Method Record and Analyze Results It still smells bad after 5 minutes

105 Draw a Conclusion Scientific Method
My Hypothesis about the flatulent was incorrect go back to step one and test another hypothesis

106 Do the Simpsons Scientific Method Review Worksheet
Do the Writing a Hypothesis Worksheet

107 Graphs are a useful tool in data analysis
There are many types When you use them depends on the data you are analyzing

108 A few types of graphs Line Graph Bar Graph Pie Graph There are times where one graph is far better than the others

109 Line Graphs John's Weight
A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on one another. The numbers along a side of the line graph are called the scale. John's Weight

110 This line graph shows how John's weight varied from the beginning of 1991 to the beginning of 1995.
The weight scale runs vertically, while the time scale is on the horizontal axis. Following the gridlines up from the beginning of the years, we see that John's weight was 68 kg in 1991, 70 kg in 1992, 74 kg in 1993, 74 kg in 1994, and 73 kg in 1995. Examining the graph also tells us that John's weight increased during 1991 and 1995, stayed the same during 1991, and fell during 1994. John's Weight

111 What does this line graph show us?
Car Value Versus the Mileage

112 Car Value Versus the Mileage
This line graph shows the average value of a car versus the mileage on the car. When the car is new, it costs $ The more the car is driven, the more its value falls according to the curve above. Its value falls $2000 the first miles it is driven. When the mileage is 80000, the truck's value is about $4000.

113 Pie Chart A pie chart is a circle graph divided into pieces, each displaying the size of some related piece of information. Pie charts are used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole.

114 Pie Chart Weight of sausage and mushroom pizza ingredients
The pie chart shows the ingredients used to make a sausage and mushroom pizza. The fraction of each ingredient by weight is shown in the pie chart. We see that half of the pizza's weight comes from the crust. The mushrooms make up the smallest amount of the pizza by weight, since the slice corresponding to the mushrooms is smallest. Note that the sum of the decimal sizes of each slice is equal to 1 (the "whole" pizza"). Weight of sausage and mushroom pizza ingredients

115 What does this pie chart show?
fractions of dogs in a dog competition

116 Bar Graphs Bar graphs consist of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars that show different values for each bar. The numbers along a side of the bar graph are called the scale. Fruit Sold

117 Bar Graphs This bar chart shows the weight in kilograms of some fruit sold one day by a local market. We can see that 52 kg of apples were sold, 40 kg of oranges were sold, and 8 kg of star fruit were sold. Fruit Sold

118 Double Bar Graph Fruit Sold
A double bar graph is similar to a regular bar graph, but gives 2 pieces of information for each item on the vertical axis, rather than just 1. What does this double bar graph show? Fruit Sold

119 Do the Kaibab Graphing Activity

120 Section 5: Metric Measurement

121 Metric Measurement Most scientists use the metric system and SI units when collecting data and performing experiments Metric System - decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10

122 Base SI Metric Units Mass = grams (g) Volume = Liters (L)
Length = Meters (m) Density = grams per liter (g/L) Temperature = degrees Celsius (ºC)

123 Metric Prefixes These two measurements are different.
15 meters 15 kilometers How?

124 Metric Prefixes These two measurements are different.
15 meters 15 kilometers How? One has a prefix

125 Metric Prefixes You will need to convert between different metric units like the following 15 meters 15 kilometers How do you do this?

126 Metric Prefixes You will need to convert between different metric units like the following 15 meters 15 kilometers How do you do this? Know your prefixes and how they relate to the base unit

127 Metric Prefixes A prefix will make the unit bigger or smaller than the base unit We will use the base unit meter in this example But remember: Prefixes have the same number meaning when attached to other units like seconds, liters, etc.

128 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: deca- Symbol: da
Meaning: ten 1 dam or decameter equals 10 meters 1 m 1 dam or 10 m

129 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: hecto- Symbol: h
Meaning: one hundred 1 hm or hectometer equals 100 meters 1 m 1 hm or 100 m

130 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: kilo- Symbol: k
Meaning: one thousand 1 km or kilometer equals 1000 meters

131 Metric Prefixes Bigger Metric Prefixes Prefix: mega-
Symbol: M  capital M Meaning: one million 1 Mm or Megameter equals meters

132 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: deci- Symbol: d
Meaning: one tenth 10 dm equals 1 m 1 dm

133 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: centi- Symbol: c
Meaning: one hundredth 100 cm equals 1 m 1 cm

134 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: milli- Symbol: m
Meaning: one thousandth 1000 mm equals 1 m 1 mm

135 Metric Prefixes Smaller Metric Prefixes Prefix: micro- Symbol: µ
Meaning: one millionth µm equals 1 m Too small to read on a meter stick

136 Metric Prefixes Mega- kilo- hecto- deca- None deci- centi- milli-
SI PREFIX Mega- kilo- hecto- deca- None deci- centi- milli- micro- Unit Symbol M k h da ---- d c m Meaning in words million thousand hundred ten ---- tenth hundredth thousandth millionth Mathematical meaning 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 1 1/10 1/100 1/1000 1/

137 Conversions outside the metric system
LENGTH 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = m 1 mi = 5280 ft = km 1 m = ft 1 km = mi MASS 1 oz = g 1 kg = 2.2 lb TIME 1 hr = 60 min = 3600 s 1 day = 24 h = 1.44 x 103 min = 8.64 x 104 s 1 yr = 365 days = x 107 s SPEED 1 mi/h = km/h = ft/s = m/s 1 km/h = mi/h = m/s = ft/s

138 Arrange these in order of largest to smallest measure of length
dm dam mm m hm km cm Km hm dam m dm cm mm

139 Place a 1 in front of the unit that is bigger
Next write how many of the smaller unit fit in the bigger unit 1 1000 1 1 1000 1000 1 1000 1 1 10 100 1 1000 1

140 This is what we started with This is what we want to find
Doing a conversion Convert 65 m to km Turn this into a question ?km = 65m This is what we started with This is what we want to find

141 Doing a conversion Convert 65 m to km ?km = 65m 1 km 1000 m
Turn this into a question ?km = 65m 1 km 1000 m 2. Draw the conversion line 3. Write the unit we are converting out of on the opposite side of the line (so it will cancel out later) 4. Write what you are converting into on the opposite side 5. Place a 1 next to the larger unit 6. Place the correct conversion factor next to the other

142 Doing a conversion ?km = 65m 1 km 1000 m
7. Cross out the units that have canceled out 8. Check to see if you are now at the desired unit 9. If yes.. Grab a calculator If no.. You will need another conversion line

143 Doing a conversion ( x ) 65 1 0.065 ( ) 1000
0.065 ( ) 1000 Using your calculator to get a successful result Open parenthesis, multiply everything in the numerator, close parenthesis Hit divide solve

144 Get some practice 32 cm to m ?m = 32 cm

145 Get some practice 2. 14 minutes to seconds ?s = 14 min

146 Get some practice cL to L ?L = 507 cL

147 Get some practice m to km ?km = m or 5.7 x10-5

148 Get some practice 5. 13 cm3 to mL ?mL = 13 cm3 (1cm3 = 1 mL)

149 L to mL ?mL= 3.004L

150 7. 86 kg to g ?g = 86 kg

151 8. 1.2 x 103 mi to km ?km = 1.2 x 103mi (0.62mi = 1km)

152 9. 0.15ft to inches ?in = 0.15ft (1ft = 12in)

153 Next level of difficulty
56 km to mm ?mm= 56 km Now were there Calculator time Not there yet… need another conversion line

154 2. 29 kg to cg ?cg = 29 kg = cg or 2.9 x 106 cg

155 km to µm ? µm = km = µm or 5.46 x 108 µm

156 4. 69,000 dg to kg ?kg = 69,000 dg = 6.9 kg

157 The units are now the same…
Next level of problem The trick here is ignoring the part of the unit you are not working with 5. 25 km/min to m/s ? m = 25 km s 1 min = m/s 1. Do exactly what we did before to convert 2. The numerator is now what you want, time to do the same with the denominator The units are now the same… Time to calculate 3. To cancel out a denominator we need to start by placing the same unit up top

158 km/h to mm/s ? mm = km s hr

159 7. 20 km to ft ? ft = 20 km (1 m = ft) = ft

160 Do the Metric Measurement Worksheet

161 THE END!!!

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