2 What is science?science is an organized study of the world around us
3 What is science? Science can be divided into three parts Life Science Earth SciencePhysical Science
4 What is science? Life Science – the study of living things Includes: Biology – the study of living thingsZoology – the study of animalsBotany – the study of plants
5 What is science?Earth Science – the study of the earth and its historyIncludes:Geology – the study of the earth’s structure, formation, and changeOceanography – study of oceans and their contentsMeteorology – study of the air, weather, and climateSpace Science – study of outer space and the things in it
6 What is science? Physical Science – the study of matter and energy Includes:Physics – study of energy and changes among forms of energyChemistry – study of all forms of matter and changes in matter
7 The Importance of Earth Science Earth science is a part of everyday lifeweatherfuelpollutioncell phones
8 The Importance of Physical Science Physical Science is also a part of daily lifeseat beltsnuclear energy
9 What is science?specialization – studying or working in one part of a subject
10 Science Skills scientists use certain skills to solve problems most of these skills involve the use of the five sensesseeinghearingtouchingsmellingtasting
11 Science Skills there are nine main science skills Observing Measuring InferringClassifyingOrganizingPredictingHypothesizingModelingAnalyzing
12 Science Skills Observing When you observe, you use your senses. You must pat close attention to everything that happens.
13 Science Skills Measuring When you measure, you compare an unknown value with a known value. Measuring makes observations more exact.
14 Science Skills Inferring When you infer, you form a conclusion based upon facts without making observations.
15 Science Skills Classifying When you classify, you group things based on how they are alike.
16 Science Skills Organizing When you organize, you work in an orderly way. You put your information in order.
17 Science Skills Predicting When you predict, you state ahead of time what you think will happen based upon what you already know.
18 Science Skills Hypothesizing When you hypothesize, you state or suggest a solution to a problem. A hypothesis is a suggested solution to a problem based upon what is already known about the problem.
19 Science Skills Modeling When you model, you use a copy of what you are studying to help explain it. A model can be a three-dimensional copy, a drawing, or a diagram. The model can be larger or smaller than the original.
20 Science Skills Analyzing When you analyze, you study information carefully.
21 Science Skillsresearching means to look for or to find out something againresearching includes:reading books, magazines, newspapers, reports, etc.doing experiments
22 Science Skills communicating is sharing information scientists communicate by teaching, talking, and writing about their workcommunication is very important to the progress of science
23 Scientific Methodscientific method – model or guide used to gather information and solve problems
24 Scientific Method the scientific method includes: Identify and State the ProblemGather InformationState a HypothesisDesign an ExperimentMake Observations and Record DataOrganize and Analyze DataState a Conclusion
25 Scientific Method Identify and State the Problem scientists often state the problem as a question
26 Scientific Method Gather Information scientists read and communicate with one anotherthey learn about work that has already been donea student may do library research to find out more about a problem
27 Scientific Method State a Hypothesis scientists state clearly a hypothesis, which is a suggested solution to a problem
28 Scientific Method Design an Experiment scientists design an experiment to test a hypothesis
29 Scientific Method Make Observations and Record Data scientists make careful observations during an experimentdata is the information that they getscientists keep careful records of data
30 Scientific Method Organize and Analyze Data scientists organize their datascientists often use graphs, charts, tables, and diagrams to organize datadata can then be analyzed, or studied
31 Scientific Method State a Conclusion a conclusion is a summary that explains the datait states whether or not the data support the hypothesisit answers the question stated in the problem
32 SI and the Metric System the metric system is an international system of measurementthe metric system and SI (International System) are based on units of 10scientists use SI
33 SI and the Metric System Prefixes and Their Meaningskilo- one thousand (1000)hecto- one hundred (100)deca- ten (10)deci- one tenth (1/10 or 0.1)centi- one hundredth (1/100 or 0.01)milli- one thousandth (1/1000 or 0.001)
34 Lengththe meter is the basic unit of length in the metric system and SIa meter stick is used to measure length
35 Areathe area of a rectangle is found by multiplying its length times its widtharea = length X widtha = l X w
36 Mass and Weight mass is the amount of matter in an object the kilogram is the basic unit of mass in the metric systemthe gram is too small of a unit
37 Mass and Weightweight is the measure of the pull of gravity on an objectthe weight of an object can change, but its mass remains the same
38 Mass and Weighta balance is used to measure mass
39 Volumevolume is the amount of space an object takes up
40 Volume a graduated cylinder is used to measure the volume of a liquid a meniscus is the name of the curved surface of a liquid
41 Volume the liter is the basic metric unit of volume volume can also be measured in cubic centimeters
42 Temperature temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is temperature is measured with a thermometer
43 Temperaturetemperatures usually are measured on the Fahrenheit scale or the Celsius scalescientists working with very low temperatures us the Kelvin scaleabsolute zero (the lowest possible temperature) is equal to 0 K (zero Kelvin)
44 Temperature degree Celsius is the metric unit of temperature water freezes at 0oC (zero degrees Celsius)water boils at 100oC (one hundred degrees Celsius)