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Science – 8W Welcome. What is science? science is an organized study of the world around us science is an organized study of the world around us.

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Presentation on theme: "Science – 8W Welcome. What is science? science is an organized study of the world around us science is an organized study of the world around us."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science – 8W Welcome

2 What is science? science is an organized study of the world around us science is an organized study of the world around us

3 What is science? Science can be divided into three parts Science can be divided into three parts –Life Science –Earth Science –Physical Science

4 What is science? Life Science – the study of living things Life Science – the study of living things –Includes: Biology – the study of living things Biology – the study of living things Zoology – the study of animals Zoology – the study of animals Botany – the study of plants Botany – the study of plants

5 What is science? Earth Science – the study of the earth and its history Earth Science – the study of the earth and its history –Includes: Geology – the study of the earths structure, formation, and change Geology – the study of the earths structure, formation, and change Oceanography – study of oceans and their contents Oceanography – study of oceans and their contents Meteorology – study of the air, weather, and climate Meteorology – study of the air, weather, and climate Space Science – study of outer space and the things in it Space Science – study of outer space and the things in it

6 What is science? Physical Science – the study of matter and energy Physical Science – the study of matter and energy –Includes: Physics – study of energy and changes among forms of energy Physics – study of energy and changes among forms of energy Chemistry – study of all forms of matter and changes in matter Chemistry – study of all forms of matter and changes in matter

7 The Importance of Earth Science Earth science is a part of everyday life Earth science is a part of everyday life –weather –fuel –pollution –cell phones

8 The Importance of Physical Science Physical Science is also a part of daily life Physical Science is also a part of daily life –seat belts –nuclear energy

9 What is science? specialization – studying or working in one part of a subject specialization – studying or working in one part of a subject

10 Science Skills scientists use certain skills to solve problems scientists use certain skills to solve problems –most of these skills involve the use of the five senses seeing seeing hearing hearing touching touching smelling smelling tasting tasting

11 Science Skills there are nine main science skills there are nine main science skills –Observing –Measuring –Inferring –Classifying –Organizing –Predicting –Hypothesizing –Modeling –Analyzing

12 Science Skills Observing Observing –When you observe, you use your senses. You must pat close attention to everything that happens.

13 Science Skills Measuring Measuring –When you measure, you compare an unknown value with a known value. Measuring makes observations more exact.

14 Science Skills Inferring Inferring –When you infer, you form a conclusion based upon facts without making observations.

15 Science Skills Classifying Classifying –When you classify, you group things based on how they are alike.

16 Science Skills Organizing Organizing –When you organize, you work in an orderly way. You put your information in order.

17 Science Skills Predicting Predicting –When you predict, you state ahead of time what you think will happen based upon what you already know.

18 Science Skills Hypothesizing Hypothesizing –When you hypothesize, you state or suggest a solution to a problem. A hypothesis is a suggested solution to a problem based upon what is already known about the problem.

19 Science Skills Modeling Modeling –When you model, you use a copy of what you are studying to help explain it. A model can be a three-dimensional copy, a drawing, or a diagram. The model can be larger or smaller than the original.

20 Science Skills Analyzing Analyzing –When you analyze, you study information carefully.

21 Science Skills researching means to look for or to find out something again researching means to look for or to find out something again –researching includes: reading books, magazines, newspapers, reports, etc. reading books, magazines, newspapers, reports, etc. doing experiments doing experiments

22 Science Skills communicating is sharing information communicating is sharing information –scientists communicate by teaching, talking, and writing about their work –communication is very important to the progress of science

23 Scientific Method scientific method – model or guide used to gather information and solve problems scientific method – model or guide used to gather information and solve problems

24 Scientific Method the scientific method includes: the scientific method includes: –Identify and State the Problem –Gather Information –State a Hypothesis –Design an Experiment –Make Observations and Record Data –Organize and Analyze Data –State a Conclusion

25 Scientific Method Identify and State the Problem Identify and State the Problem –scientists often state the problem as a question

26 Scientific Method Gather Information Gather Information –scientists read and communicate with one another –they learn about work that has already been done –a student may do library research to find out more about a problem

27 Scientific Method State a Hypothesis State a Hypothesis –scientists state clearly a hypothesis, which is a suggested solution to a problem

28 Scientific Method Design an Experiment Design an Experiment –scientists design an experiment to test a hypothesis

29 Scientific Method Make Observations and Record Data Make Observations and Record Data –scientists make careful observations during an experiment –data is the information that they get –scientists keep careful records of data

30 Scientific Method Organize and Analyze Data Organize and Analyze Data –scientists organize their data –scientists often use graphs, charts, tables, and diagrams to organize data –data can then be analyzed, or studied

31 Scientific Method State a Conclusion State a Conclusion –a conclusion is a summary that explains the data –it states whether or not the data support the hypothesis –it answers the question stated in the problem

32 SI and the Metric System the metric system is an international system of measurement the metric system is an international system of measurement the metric system and SI (International System) are based on units of 10 the metric system and SI (International System) are based on units of 10 scientists use SI scientists use SI

33 SI and the Metric System Prefixes and Their Meanings Prefixes and Their Meanings –kilo-one thousand (1000) –hecto-one hundred (100) –deca-ten (10) –deci-one tenth (1/10 or 0.1) –centi-one hundredth (1/100 or 0.01) –milli-one thousandth (1/1000 or 0.001)

34 Length the meter is the basic unit of length in the metric system and SI the meter is the basic unit of length in the metric system and SI a meter stick is used to measure length a meter stick is used to measure length

35 Area the area of a rectangle is found by multiplying its length times its width the area of a rectangle is found by multiplying its length times its width area = length X width a = l X w

36 Mass and Weight mass is the amount of matter in an object mass is the amount of matter in an object the kilogram is the basic unit of mass in the metric system the kilogram is the basic unit of mass in the metric system –the gram is too small of a unit

37 Mass and Weight weight is the measure of the pull of gravity on an object weight is the measure of the pull of gravity on an object –the weight of an object can change, but its mass remains the same

38 Mass and Weight a balance is used to measure mass a balance is used to measure mass

39 Volume volume is the amount of space an object takes up volume is the amount of space an object takes up

40 Volume a graduated cylinder is used to measure the volume of a liquid a graduated cylinder is used to measure the volume of a liquid –a meniscus is the name of the curved surface of a liquid

41 Volume the liter is the basic metric unit of volume the liter is the basic metric unit of volume volume can also be measured in cubic centimeters volume can also be measured in cubic centimeters

42 Temperature temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is –temperature is measured with a thermometer

43 Temperature temperatures usually are measured on the Fahrenheit scale or the Celsius scale temperatures usually are measured on the Fahrenheit scale or the Celsius scale scientists working with very low temperatures us the Kelvin scale scientists working with very low temperatures us the Kelvin scale –absolute zero (the lowest possible temperature) is equal to 0 K (zero Kelvin)

44 Temperature degree Celsius is the metric unit of temperature degree Celsius is the metric unit of temperature –water freezes at 0 o C (zero degrees Celsius) –water boils at 100 o C (one hundred degrees Celsius)


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