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The Environment Institute Where ideas grow This world’s water - have we got enough? Mike Young Executive Director, The Environment Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "The Environment Institute Where ideas grow This world’s water - have we got enough? Mike Young Executive Director, The Environment Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Environment Institute Where ideas grow This world’s water - have we got enough? Mike Young Executive Director, The Environment Institute

2 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Global water? Energy Health Climate change Supply People Challenges

3 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Energy

4 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Australia World Primary Energy

5 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Where could we go?

6 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Nicholson, Biegler & Brook (2010) “How carbon pricing changes the relative competitiveness of low-carbon baseload generating technologies” Energy doi: /j.energy Technology cost comparisons – should nuclear be part of the mix?

7 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Australian Greenhouse Gas Emissions

8 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Water

9 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Health 3,900 children under 5 die every day from water supply & sanitation related diseases MDG to halve the number people without access to drinking water and sanitation by 2015 – Drinking water goal expected to be met – Sanitation goal will not be met

10 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide MDG Sanitation Target Progress

11 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Global flow and use 70% Agriculture, 20% Industry & 10% Urban After Molden 2007

12 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Global water scarcity After Molden 2007

13 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide International Trade After Hoekstar & Chapagain 2007

14 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Causes increasing water scarcity Adverse climate change Population increase Increased living standards Over-exploitation Declining water quality

15 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Threats to Biodiversity and Water

16 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Climate

17 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Getting hotter

18 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Has been getting drier in south & east

19 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide - 1% - 3%

20 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide With half as much water, how much can you use? Users Environment River Flow Environment River Flow Users River Flow Environment Users

21 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Global impacts of climate change Some areas get wetter and warmer Some areas get drier and warmer The aggregate affect of climate change on water supplies is expected to be negative. – By 2030 child malnutrition is predicted to increase by 20%.

22 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide People

23 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide World Population

24 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide One more Australian every 1 minute 18 seconds Source: ABS, 2008

25 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide An emerging gap

26 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Water scarcity gap – billions m 3 After 2030 Water Resources Group

27 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide MENA = Middle East & Northern Africa

28 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Water stressed people After OECD 2009

29 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide The reality 1.Failure to provide reliable access to water and sanitation services is one of humankind’s greatest failings. 2.By 2030, over half the world’s population is expected to be living in a water stressed region. 3.Demand is growing and supply costs are rising. 4.Health and quality of many rivers and aquifers is declining. Restoration is a non-trivial challenge! 5.The aggregate affect of climate change on water supplies is expected to be negative. – By 2030 child malnutrition is predicted to increase by 20%. 6.The rate of change necessary to close the gap is an order of magnitude faster than has been achieved in recent times.

30 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Avoiding the crisis 1.Parallel investments in governance, the development of taxation systems, the removal of market distortions and freer trading arrangements for agricultural products. 2.Freer international trading arrangements will significantly reduce the costs of facilitating adjustment and attaining MDG targets. 3.The early introduction of greenhouse gas trading or taxation arrangements will reduce the costs of achieving a transition {Gravity is cheap.}

31 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Pricing arrangements 1.In India, 15% of food is produced from subsidised groundwater depletion. 2.Subsidies need to be phased out. 3.In many cases, the poorest of the poor would be better off paying the full cost of supply rather than exposing themselves to the extremely high cost of obtaining access to water from other sources a central source and the impact of unsanitary conditions on them.

32 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Water charges in Western Jakarta Code Customer TypeVolume of water used 0-10 m m 3 >20 m 3 K2Low-Income Domestic$0.105 $0.158 K3A Middle-Income Domestic $0.355$0.470$0.550 K313 High-Income Domestic and Small Business $0.490$0.600$0.745 K4A$0.683$0.815$0.980 K413Non-Domestic$1.255 a)Prices converted to US$ and rounded to 3 decimal places Source: Adapted from Fournier and others (2010). Table 4 Water Tariff Structure in Western Jakarta, US$ per m 3

33 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Governance Corruption has been estimated to be raising the cost of achieving the MDG by $50 billion per year

34 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Financing investment (3 T’s) After Marin and OECD 2009

35 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide

36 The Environment Institute Life Impact The University of Adelaide Seven global observations 1.When water is mismanaged, economic growth and development is inordinately difficult. 2.Globally, there appears to be under-investment in water. 3.When accelerated investment is coupled with improvements in governance and water policies, the amount that needs to be invested in the water can be reduced significantly. 4.For many people, the lack of access to reliable clean water and adequate sanitation services means that these people cannot participate in a green economy. 5.Investment in the development of water entitlement and allocation systems designed to both ensure the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services and, also, to facilitate adjustment in the way water resources are used can be expected to pay long-term dividends. 6.The cost of resolving the constellation of water scarcity crises emerging around the world depends upon the extent of commitment to water policy reform and the development of improved governance arrangements. 7.The resolution of global water supply problems is heavily dependent upon the degree to which agricultural water use can be improved.

37 The Environment Institute Where ideas grow


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