Presentation on theme: "Literary elements 1. Character 2. Plot 3. Figure of speech 4. Conflict"— Presentation transcript:
1Literary elements 1. Character 2. Plot 3. Figure of speech 4. Conflict 5. Setting6. Theme
2CharacterCharacter can be revealed through the character's actions, speech, and appearance. It also can be revealed by the comments of other characters and of the author.
3Types of characters that appear in many stories: The protagonist is the central character (person, animal, or personified object) in the plot's conflict. The antagonist is the force in conflict with the protagonist. It may be society, nature, or fate, as well as another person. It can also be the protagonist's own self, if he or she has an internal conflict.
4PlotPlot is the sequence of events which involves the characters in conflict. It is often written in chronological order.
5Most plots have certain common elements: A story commonly begins with exposition, an explanation of the situation and the condition of the characters. A plot usually continues with a problem which the protagonist must meet or solve. During the story, tension is built through a series of complications, incidents which either help or hinder the protagonist in finding a solution. This is the rising action.
6The climax is the peak or turning point of the action; at this point we know the outcome. The denouement or falling action follows. It gives any necessary explanation and ends with resolution, the sense that at the end of the story, it is complete.
7The order of the sequence of events looks like this: complicating incidentrising actionclimaxfalling actionoutcome
8The ending of the story may be either open or closed: In a closed ending, the most usual one in children's books, readers feel that they know what will happen. The various parts of the plot are tied together satisfactorily, and the reader feels a sense of completion.
9 In an open ending, readers. must draw their own In an open ending, readers must draw their own conclusions; they do not know what will happen.
10Figures of speechOther elements which may be found in plots include:Foreshadowing is the planting of hints about what will happen later in the story.A flashback occurs when the author narrates an event that took place before the current time of the story.
11ConflictConflict is the struggle between the protagonist and an opposing force.Several types of conflict may be present in any one story.
12There are several types of conflict: Character vs character: the protagonist against someone else.Character vs society: happens when the protagonist is in conflict with the values of his or her society.
13Character vs nature: takes place when the protagonist is threatened by an element of nature. Character vs self : occurs when the protagonist struggles within himself or herself. The protagonist is pulled by two courses of action or by differing emotions.
14SettingSetting includes the place and the time period in which the story takes place.
15Theme Theme is the underlying meaning of the story, a universal truth, a significant statement the story is making about society, human nature, or the human condition.
16 Themes must be clearly stated; they are expressible in the form of a sentence. One word is usually not enough. To say that a book's theme is "friendship" is not clear. It may mean, "Friends are a person's most valuable possession." It may also mean, "Friends can never be trusted if their own interests are opposed to yours."The THEME answers the question, « What does the whole story mean? » It’s expressible in the form of a sentence.