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Typical ‘Supercompensation’ Model

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Presentation on theme: "Typical ‘Supercompensation’ Model"— Presentation transcript:

1 Typical ‘Supercompensation’ Model
Training impulse Current trained level Supercompensation Reversibility Immediate response Recovery/ regeneration Time Short-term overreaching

2 Structure Note: Loading increases each Meso (block of Micros)
4 Week Meso = e.g. 3 weeks progressive loading and 1 week recovery = 3:1

3 Intensity (need to define what “intense” is!)

4 CSCTA Tech Level 3, Calgary 2005
The “Global Athlete” Optimal Under - performance Competition Sequencing PHYSIOLOGY BIOMECHANICS PSYCHOLOGY TACTICS HEALTH LIFESTYLE SEQUENCE OF TRAINING ( Macro, Meso, Micro ) Overtrained / Under - rested Optimal / Under - performance Overtrained / Under - rested Optimal / Poor Optimal / Illness Competition Analysis Volume Wt. Train. % Fat Emotional Stability Psych Non-training Stress Health Social Intensity Confidence Recovery Training Sickness Fatigue Focus Cognitive Stress Repetition Equipment Muscle Fatigue Work School Finance DJS 99 Shane P. Esau, M.Kin.

5 Variety Athletes will adapt to a constant stimulus rapidly! Training
impulse Training impulse Short-term overreaching Time

6 Individualization Each athlete will react differently to the same stimulus Training impulse Athlete A Athlete B Short-term overreaching Time Long-term Overreaching/ Over-training

7 Energy Systems: Physiology
Jared Fletcher, PhD(c) Human Performance Lab Faculty of Kinesiology University of Calgary To add the All Caps title to the Identification bar on the bottom go to “View” – “Header and Footer” – and add the title to the “footer” box. Then click apply to all SNC 301 Module 15

8 Energetics Energy/Power Output Time SNC 301 Module 15 ATP-CP ANAEROBIC
GLYCOLYSIS Energy/Power Output OXIDATIVE 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ Time SNC 301 Module 15

9 “Immediate Energy System”
ATP-CP System “Immediate Energy System” 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ High power Very low capacity Time to peak power: <0.5 s Capacity: 8 – 12 s Anaerobic Alactic ATP-CP Energy/Power Output Cr + ATP  ADP + Pi + Energy Time SNC 301 Module 15

10 Energetics Energy/Power Output Time SNC 301 Module 15 ATP-CP ANAEROBIC
GLYCOLYSIS Energy/Power Output OXIDATIVE 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ Time SNC 301 Module 15

11 Recovery of Phosphagens
0 sec – 15% 1 min % 2 min % 4 min % 6 min exhaustive exercise (~300 W, filled circles) and isometric contractions (open circles) sustained at 66% MVC to fatigue Harris et al. Pflugers Arch. 367: 301 Module 15

12 Intensity (% max effort) 98-100% Repetitions (number) 4-6
0 sec – 15% 1 min % 2 min % 4 min % Interval Work phase 1-10 sec / m Rest phase sec (passive) Work : Rest ratio 1:10 Intensity (% max effort) 98-100% Repetitions (number) 4-6 Sets (number) 2-4 Rest between sets 5-10 min light swimming Reps depend on ability to maintain velocity and form – Quality over Quantity Need to time them and watch!! Get feedback from athletes

13 “Short-term Energy system”
Anaerobic Glycolytic “Short-term Energy system” Energy/Power Output 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ High Power Limited Capacity Time to peak power: >8 s Capacity: 2-3 mins Anaerobic Lactic ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS Stored CHO  ATP + La- + H+ Time SNC 301 Module 15

14 Effect of active recovery on blood lactate removal rates
Fletcher and Esau. Effect of cooldown distance on blood lactate clearance in Paralympic Swimmers (in preparation).

15 Interval Work phase 30-120s / 50 – 150m Rest phase 90-360s (active/swimming light) Work : rest ratio 1:3 Intensity (% max effort) 80-85% Repetitions (number) 4-6 Sets (number) 1-4 Rest between sets 5-10 min Accumulate waste produces throughout the rep Short recovery promotes ACCUMULATION “near full” recovery between sets promotes TOLERANCE

16 “long term energy system”
Aerobic “long term energy system” Low power Large capacity Time to peak power: 2-3 mins Capacity: “limitless” ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS Energy/Power Output AEROBIC CHO, Fats + O2  ATP + CO2 + H20 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ Time SNC 301 Module 15

17 Time to “steady-state” depends on intensity
MAX Time to “steady-state” depends on intensity Above Anaerobic Threshold, steady-state is not attained

18 Aerobic Training Zones
Energy/Power Output VO2max Threshold Recovery 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ Time SNC 301 Module 15

19 Aerobic Training Zones
VO2max Work phase 200 – 500m / 3-10 min Rest phase 3-10 min (active) Work : rest ratio 1:1 Intensity (% max effort) 90 – 95% of max HR – 95 – 105% of VO2max pace Repetitions (number) Accumulate 12 – 25 min Sets (number) 1-3 Rest between sets 10-15 min (active) SNC 301 Module 15

20 Aerobic Training Zones
Threshold Work phase 4-15 min – 1500m Rest phase Dependent on work interval Work : rest ratio 2:1 – 5:1 (active) Intensity (% max effort) Anaerobic threshold –5% to +10% Repetitions (number) 3-10 Sets (number) 1-3 Rest between sets Variable – active rest SNC 301 Module 15

21 Aerobic Training Zones
Recovery Work phase min Rest phase n/a Work : rest ratio Intensity (% max effort) <70% Repetitions (number) Continuous Sets (number) Rest between sets SNC 301 Module 15

22 Approximate % Best Time Proportion of Work Load to Rest
Energetic Zone Approximate % Best Time Proportion of Work Load to Rest Training factors I 60% (5:1) Endurance II 70% (2:1) Endurance with Limited Speed Factor III 80% (1:1) Endurance and Speed Equal IV 90% (1:3) Speed with Limited Endurance Factor V 100% (1:5) Speed Note: Zones will be explained in an activity in the module.

23 Discussion Topic … What are some ways to organize your group to optimize training? Keep individualization in mind … athletes will do better with attention to their individual needs Separate the groups into distance lane and middle distance lane. 23

24 Influence of maturation...
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Annual gain in various characteristics of performance capacity of young swimmers Max anaerobic power (Margaria) Improvement in a year (%) Exc CO2 VO2max B[La] post anaerobic exercise Make sure the specialist defines/explains each of the terms and what the shape of each line means. AnT Age (years) Voitenko, 1985 24

25 Activity #1: Designing a Set
Break in to 5 groups – coaches with similar athlete age and competitive level. Each group will focus on 1 energy system Each group create sample set for their 1 energy system. Each group presents their set to class for discussion and feedback. Sample Learning Activity

26 Activity #2: Designing a Practice
Remain in same 5 groups. Each group creates a 2 hour practice that supports the set they created in the previous activity. e.g. the group who designed a set to train VO2 Max will design a practice based on a VO2 Max main set. Each group presents their practice to class for discussion and feedback.

27 Energetics Energy/Power Output Time V IV III II I SNC 301 Module 15
ATP-CP IV ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS Energy/Power Output III II OXIDATIVE I 10 s 30 s s min 15 min+ Time SNC 301 Module 15

28 Recovery and Nutrition
Specialist may wish to integrate training on Adaptation, Recovery, Regeneration at this time. Note: Interference is an essential unit to be trained and understood. SNC 301 Module 16 28

29 Influence of dietary CHO and training on Glycogen stores
Wilmore and Costill, 1994

30 Functions of Carbohydrate
Major energy source , particularly in high - intensity activity Its presence regulates fat and protein metabolism The nervous system relies exclusively on CHO for energy Muscle and liver glycogen are synthesized from CHO

31 Glycogen Limited storage in muscle
Anaerobic Training improves glycogen storage Replacement takes 12 hours to 3 days depending on type of muscle fiber and rate of depletion (intensity and duration of exercise) Inadequate replacement will compromise subsequent sessions Consume CHO rich snack immediately after training ( g/kg) SNC 301 Module 15 31

32 Glycogen Replacement SNC 301 Module 15 Workload % VO2max Event
Dominant Fuel Dominant Fiber Fuel Time Replacement Time 30-50 Channel Fat I NA 50-70 Long distance Fat-Glycogen 2 Hr 24 Hr 85-100 1500m Glycogen IIA - I < 80 min 12 – 24 Hr 100 800m 40 min 110 400m IIA – I- IIB 30 min 12 Hr – 3 days 120 200m 20 min 140 100m IIA – IIB 15 min >140 25-50m CP/ Glycogen IIB 8 min 30sec/3 days SNC 301 Module 15 32

33 Activity #3: Planning a Week
Remain in groups from previous activities. Each group creates a weekly plan, for a T2C swimmer, based on the average number of practices the coaches in the group have (max 8). Plan must show order in which energy system was focused on each practice. (top two) Each group presents their weekly plan to class for discussion and feedback. Specialist – may want to have coaches ingrate the first steps to their 302 presentation of their Micro SNC 301 Module 15 33

34 Aggressive recovery needed if
Recovery nutrition Aggressive recovery needed if training more than once per day or training volumes increase Goals: Refuel Repair Re-hydrate Have specialist define each term + give an explanation SNC 301 Module 15 34

35 Recovery nutrition A.S.A.P.
Insulin independent glycogen synthesis ( mins post Ex.) Pre-plan and have a portable nutrition source close at hand Fluids: 150% of lost weight or pale urine. g carb/kg (45+grams) in the first hour and then follow training diet. First snack high on Glycemic Index (GI) then lower GI for later foods. Protein: g every 2 hrs. SNC 301 Module 16 35

36 Glycemic Index of Some Common Foods
Low G.I. (<60) Fructose Apple Applesauce Cherries Kidney beans Chick peas Lentils Dates Figs Peaches Plums Ice cream Milk Yogurt Tomato soup High G.I. (>85) Glucose Sucrose Maple syrup Honey Bagel Candy Corn flakes Carrots Crackers Molasses Potatoes Raisins Bread Soda Med. G.I. (60-85) All-bran cereal Grapes Oatmeal Orange juice Pasta Rice Yams Corn Whole-grain rye bread Baked beans Potato chips SNC 301 Module 16 36

37 Amount of CHO Highest synthesis occurs with large amounts of CHO
1.0 to 1.2 grams / kg / hour 15 to 60 min intervals for up to 5 hours post exercise Jentjens and Jeukendrup Sports Med 33 (2): , 2006 SNC 301 Module 16

38 Practical Tips When appetite is depressed immediately post exercise, there is a preference for drinking fluids rather than solid foods CHO beverages are recommended in the first few hours post exercise Jentjens and Jeukendrup Sports Med 33 (2): , 2006 SNC 301 Module 16

39 Dietary Protein Is used for growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues Hemoglobin , enzymes and many hormones are produced from protein RDA for general population g / kg RDA for athletes in heavy training should be approx g / kg . This applies to both strength and endurance training

40 Field Testing Specialist might canvas the coaches to provide one test each. This will get the ball rolling. Then we can move into SNC Protocol. 40

41 SNC Swimming Field Tests
Pool 7x200 50 dive 50 kick 400 kick Dryland Equipment HR monitor Stop watches Clipboard 41

42 Data collection 7x200 Step Test 42 Date: Name SC SR HR RPE FS Lactate
Time SC SR HR RPE FS Lactate 42

43 Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale
Feeling Scale 6 No exertion at all 7 8 Extremely light 9 Very light 10 11 Light 12 13 Somewhat hard 14 15 Hard (heavy) 17 Very hard 18 19 Extremely hard 20 Maximal exertion 16 +5 Very good +4 +3 Good +2 +1 Fairly good Neutral -1 Fairly bad -2 -3 Bad -4 -5 Very Bad FS is a measure of how the athlete feels. Cue: “How did that feel?” RPE is a measure of how hard the athlete thinks they are working. That is, the total amount of exertion and physical fatigue, combining all sensations and feelings of physical stress and effort Cue: “How hard did you work?” 43

44 Data collection

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