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1 Typical ‘Supercompensation’ Model Current trained level Immediate response Training impulse Supercompensation Reversibility Recovery/ regeneration Short-term.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Typical ‘Supercompensation’ Model Current trained level Immediate response Training impulse Supercompensation Reversibility Recovery/ regeneration Short-term."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Typical ‘Supercompensation’ Model Current trained level Immediate response Training impulse Supercompensation Reversibility Recovery/ regeneration Short-term overreaching Time

2 2 Structure Note: Loading increases each Meso (block of Micros) 4 Week Meso = e.g. 3 weeks progressive loading and 1 week recovery = 3:1

3 3 Intensity (need to define what “intense” is!)

4 4 The “Global Athlete” Optimal Under - performance Competition Sequencing PHYSIOLOGYBIOMECHANICSPSYCHOLOGYTACTICS HEALTH LIFESTYLE SEQUENCE OF TRAINING ( Macro, Meso, Micro ) Overtrained / Under - rested Optimal / Under - performance Overtrained / Under - rested Optimal / Poor Optimal / Illness Volume Intensity Wt. Train. % Fat Recovery Training RepetitionEquipment Muscle Fatigue Emotional Stability Confidence Psych Social Focus Cognitive Stress Non-training Stress Health FatigueSickness Work SchoolFinance Competition Analysis DJS 99

5 5 Variety Training impulse Short-term overreaching Time Athletes will adapt to a constant stimulus rapidly! Training impulse

6 6 Individualization Training impulse Short-term overreaching Time Each athlete will react differently to the same stimulus Athlete A Athlete B Long-term Overreaching/ Over-training

7 SNC 301 Module 15 Energy Systems: Physiology Jared Fletcher, PhD(c) Human Performance Lab Faculty of Kinesiology University of Calgary

8 Energetics Energy/Power Output Time ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS OXIDATIVE 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15

9 ATP-CP System “Immediate Energy System” Energy/Power Output Time ATP-CP 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15 High power Very low capacity Time to peak power: <0.5 s Capacity: 8 – 12 s Anaerobic Alactic Cr + ATP  ADP + Pi + Energy

10 Energetics Energy/Power Output Time ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS OXIDATIVE 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15

11 Recovery of Phosphagens Harris et al. Pflugers Arch. 367: sec – 15% 1 min - 65% 2 min - 68% 4 min - 72% 301 Module 15

12 Interval Work phase1-10 sec / m Rest phase sec (passive) Work : Rest ratio1:10 Intensity (% max effort)98-100% Repetitions (number)4-6 Sets (number)2-4 Rest between sets5-10 min light swimming Reps depend on ability to maintain velocity and form – Quality over Quantity Need to time them and watch!! Get feedback from athletes 0 sec – 15% 1 min - 65% 2 min - 68% 4 min - 72%

13 Anaerobic Glycolytic “Short-term Energy system” Time ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS Energy/Power Output 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15 High Power Limited Capacity Time to peak power: >8 s Capacity: 2-3 mins Anaerobic Lactic Stored CHO  ATP + La - + H +

14 Effect of active recovery on blood lactate removal rates Fletcher and Esau. Effect of cooldown distance on blood lactate clearance in Paralympic Swimmers (in preparation).

15 Interval Work phase30-120s / 50 – 150m Rest phase90-360s (active/swimming light) Work : rest ratio1:3 Intensity (% max effort)80-85% Repetitions (number)4-6 Sets (number)1-4 Rest between sets5-10 min Accumulate waste produces throughout the rep Short recovery promotes ACCUMULATION “near full” recovery between sets promotes TOLERANCE

16 Aerobic “long term energy system” Energy/Power Output Time ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS AEROBIC 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15 Low power Large capacity Time to peak power: 2-3 mins Capacity: “limitless” CHO, Fats + O 2  ATP + CO 2 + H 2 0

17 MAX Time to “steady-state” depends on intensity Above Anaerobic Threshold, steady-state is not attained

18 Aerobic Training Zones Energy/Power Output Time 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15 VO 2 max Threshold Recovery

19 Aerobic Training Zones SNC 301 Module 15 VO 2 max Work phase200 – 500m / 3-10 min Rest phase3-10 min (active) Work : rest ratio1:1 Intensity (% max effort)90 – 95% of max HR – 95 – 105% of VO2max pace Repetitions (number)Accumulate 12 – 25 min Sets (number)1-3 Rest between sets10-15 min (active)

20 Aerobic Training Zones SNC 301 Module 15 Threshold Work phase4-15 min – 1500m Rest phaseDependent on work interval Work : rest ratio2:1 – 5:1 (active) Intensity (% max effort)Anaerobic threshold –5% to +10% Repetitions (number)3-10 Sets (number)1-3 Rest between setsVariable – active rest

21 Aerobic Training Zones SNC 301 Module 15 Recovery Work phase min Rest phasen/a Work : rest ration/a Intensity (% max effort) <70% Repetitions (number)Continuous Sets (number)n/a Rest between setsn/a

22 Energetic ZoneApproximate % Best TimeProportion of Work Load to Rest Training factors I60%(5:1)Endurance II70%(2:1)Endurance with Limited Speed Factor III80%(1:1)Endurance and Speed Equal IV90%(1:3)Speed with Limited Endurance Factor V100%(1:5)Speed Note: Zones will be explained in an activity in the module.

23 Discussion Topic … What are some ways to organize your group to optimize training? Keep individualization in mind … athletes will do better with attention to their individual needs

24 Influence of maturation Improvement in a year (%) Age (years) Voitenko, 1985 Annual gain in various characteristics of performance capacity of young swimmers VO2max Exc CO2 Max anaerobic power (Margaria) AnT B[La] post anaerobic exercise

25 Activity #1: Designing a Set Break in to 5 groups – coaches with similar athlete age and competitive level. –Each group will focus on 1 energy system Each group create sample set for their 1 energy system. Each group presents their set to class for discussion and feedback.

26 Activity #2: Designing a Practice Remain in same 5 groups. Each group creates a 2 hour practice that supports the set they created in the previous activity. e.g. the group who designed a set to train VO 2 Max will design a practice based on a VO 2 Max main set. Each group presents their practice to class for discussion and feedback.

27 Energetics Energy/Power Output Time ATP-CP ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS OXIDATIVE 10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+ SNC 301 Module 15 I IIIII IV V

28 Recovery and Nutrition SNC 301 Module 16

29 Wilmore and Costill, 1994 Influence of dietary CHO and training on Glycogen stores

30 Functions of Carbohydrate Major energy source, particularly in high - intensity activity Its presence regulates fat and protein metabolism The nervous system relies exclusively on CHO for energy Muscle and liver glycogen are synthesized from CHO

31 Glycogen Limited storage in muscle –Anaerobic Training improves glycogen storage Replacement takes 12 hours to 3 days depending on type of muscle fiber and rate of depletion (intensity and duration of exercise) Inadequate replacement will compromise subsequent sessions Consume CHO rich snack immediately after training ( g/kg) SNC 301 Module 15

32 Glycogen Replacement Workload % VO2max EventDominant FuelDominant FiberFuel Time Replacement Time 30-50ChannelFatINA 50-70Long distanceFat-GlycogenI2 Hr24 Hr mGlycogenIIA - I< 80 min12 – 24 Hr mGlycogenIIA - I40 min12 – 24 Hr mGlycogenIIA – I- IIB30 min12 Hr – 3 days mGlycogenIIA – I- IIB20 min12 Hr – 3 days mGlycogenIIA – IIB15 min12 Hr – 3 days > mCP/ GlycogenIIB8 min30sec/3 days SNC 301 Module 15

33 Activity #3: Planning a Week Remain in groups from previous activities. Each group creates a weekly plan, for a T2C swimmer, based on the average number of practices the coaches in the group have (max 8). –Plan must show order in which energy system was focused on each practice. (top two) Each group presents their weekly plan to class for discussion and feedback. SNC 301 Module 15

34 Recovery nutrition Goals: Refuel Repair Re-hydrate Aggressive recovery needed if training more than once per day or training volumes increase SNC 301 Module 15

35 Recovery nutrition A.S.A.P. –Insulin independent glycogen synthesis (30-60 mins post Ex.) –Pre-plan and have a portable nutrition source close at hand Fluids: 150% of lost weight or pale urine g carb/kg (45+grams) in the first hour and then follow training diet. First snack high on Glycemic Index (GI) then lower GI for later foods. Protein: g every 2 hrs. SNC 301 Module 16

36 Glycemic Index of Some Common Foods High G.I. (>85) Glucose Sucrose Maple syrup Honey Bagel Candy Corn flakes Carrots Crackers Molasses Potatoes Raisins Bread Soda Med. G.I. (60-85) All-bran cereal Grapes Oatmeal Orange juice Pasta Rice Yams Corn Whole-grain rye bread Baked beans Potato chips Low G.I. (<60) Fructose Apple Applesauce Cherries Kidney beans Chick peas Lentils Dates Figs Peaches Plums Ice cream Milk Yogurt Tomato soup SNC 301 Module 16

37 Amount of CHO Highest synthesis occurs with large amounts of CHO 1.0 to 1.2 grams / kg / hour 15 to 60 min intervals for up to 5 hours post exercise Jentjens and Jeukendrup Sports Med 33 (2): , 2006 SNC 301 Module 16

38 Practical Tips When appetite is depressed immediately post exercise, there is a preference for drinking fluids rather than solid foods CHO beverages are recommended in the first few hours post exercise Jentjens and Jeukendrup Sports Med 33 (2): , 2006 SNC 301 Module 16

39 Dietary Protein Is used for growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues Hemoglobin, enzymes and many hormones are produced from protein RDA for general population g / kg RDA for athletes in heavy training should be approx 2.0 g / kg. This applies to both strength and endurance training

40 Field Testing

41 SNC Swimming Field Tests Pool –7x200 –50 dive –50 kick –400 kick Dryland Equipment –HR monitor –Stop watches –Clipboard

42 Data collection 7x200 Step Test Date: Name Time SCSRHRRPEFSLactate

43 Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale6 No exertion at all 7 8 Extremely light 9 Very light Light Somewhat hard Hard (heavy) 17 Very hard Extremely hard 20 Maximal exertion Very good Neutral Fairly bad Bad Very Bad Good Fairly good FS is a measure of how the athlete feels. Cue: “How did that feel?” Feeling Scale RPE is a measure of how hard the athlete thinks they are working. That is, the total amount of exertion and physical fatigue, combining all sensations and feelings of physical stress and effort. Cue: “How hard did you work?”

44 Data collection


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