Presentation on theme: "Eating for Performance Jennifer Kienlen, RN, CNRN Boise State University November 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Eating for Performance Jennifer Kienlen, RN, CNRN Boise State University November 2012
Sports Nutrition Studies for High School Athletes Increase in competitiveness of HS sports has lead to an increased # of studies looking at the unique nutritional needs of HS athletes Growth & development as well as gender difference focus Nutritional knowledge is often based on myth, not science Nutrition information comes from sources other than the experts
Energy = Performance In order to take your athletic abilities to the highest level your body must have energy! HS students juggle incredibly hectic schedules and must be prepared to take on the responsibility to provide their bodies with energy in order to make it through training, competition and recovery periods. Knowledge, planning, and preparation become one of the key pieces of athletic training if peak performance is to be achieved Timing of meals & snacks can improve performance and stamina Food choices + hydration + rest + life balance = Energy
Energy Sources Carbohydrates (CHO) Protein Fats (Fatty acids/triglycerides)
Energy Sources: Carbs Stored as glycogen Preferred immediate energy source Carbs provide the energy to fuel muscle contractions Carbs provide energy more rapidly to working muscles than proteins or fats
Energy Sources: Simple Carbs Choose wisely!! One source is likely to be stored as fat when taken in too large of quantities or when immediate glucose is not needed and does not provide nutrients, vitamins, or minerals
Energy Sources: Complex Carbs The other choices help to provide needed micronutrients, vitamins and minerals while providing an energy source for muscles and the brain
Counting Carbs 1 serving = 15 gms of carbs Serving size depends on the food choice 1 slice whole grain bread 1 tortilla 1/3 cup of cooked pasta ¼ bagel (whole bagel = 60gms carbs) ½ cup starchy vegetable (potato, corn, peas) ½ banana 15-20 grapes ½ c cooked green beans ½ c cooked plain oatmeal 6 oz (3/4 c) light fruit yogurt (Yoplait Light)
Energy Sources: Protein Proteins provide the body with the amino acids needed to make and maintain tissues (muscle, bone, tendons, hair, skin) Often mistaken by athletes as the primary source of energy needed for strength or endurance training Not a primary source of fuel for muscles Timing of protein intake is essential to recovery and muscle repair There is a limit on protein synthesis that can occur at any given time in the body If protein intake is too high, the by-products of protein breakdown can lead to dehydration, ketone build up and kidney disease
Energy Sources: Protein Strength training athletes need approx 1.4-1.8 gms/kg (2.2 #s) of protein a day (75kg=165#= 105-135 gms/protein/day) Endurance training athletes need approx 1.2-1.4 gms/kg of protein a day (75kg=165#= 90-105gms/protein/day)
How much protein is in that? 3 oz (about the size of your palm) serving of either fish, chicken, turkey or beef = 21 gms of protein Milk, 8 oz = 8 grams Tofu, 3 oz = 15 grams Yogurt, 8 oz = 8 grams Cheese, 3 oz = 21 grams Peanut butter, 2 tbsp = 8 grams Eggs, 2 large = 13 grams Nuts, 1 oz = 6-8 grams Pumpkin seeds, 1 oz = 8 grams
Energy Sources: Fat Dietary fat gets blamed for many different health problems, but it is an essential nutrient for optimal health, strength and endurance Essential fatty acids provide muscle energy for low-intensity activity or prolonged exercise Types Saturated: Solid at room temp; high intake leads to heart disease; limit to no more than 10% of total daily calorie intake Unsaturated: Liquid at room temp; typically from plant sources; reduce cholesterol and heart disease; many health benefits Trans fat: When unsat fat is created to be solid at room temp; intake should be very limited due to increased health risks
Energy Sources: Fat Saturated and Trans Fats: Hard to stay away from because they taste good; some saturated fats are good sources of protein Watch for trans fats in packaged foods, fast foods, frozen dinners If you must indulge: limit intake of trans fats found in fast foods, candy bars, fried foods, pizza, cheeseburgers, etc to ONCE A WEEK!
Fueling the body What you eat affects not only your performance, but your overall health In order to be the best you have to eat differently than the rest Poor nutrition and poor hydration lead to prolonged poor performance, fatigue, weight loss and long term health problems What you eat is as important as when you eat Training, Competition and Recovery each require different combinations of carbohydrates and proteins to maximize glycogen stores in the muscle
Training and Competition in the Male HS Athlete Often times sports nutrition experts separate training from competition in the college or pro athlete Research indicates that training sessions for HS athletes are just as intense if not more intense than game day competition For meal and snack timing for the male HS athlete training and competition are used interchangeably
Timing of Meals: Pre-Game Goal of meal timing is to maximize/replenish glycogen stores prior to intense muscle use Pre-game/exercise meal 2-4 hours before Low in fat and fiber to reduce gastric upset 1-2 gms/kg carbs with.15-.25 gms/kg lean protein Pre-Game Snack 30 min – 1 hour before 1 gm CHO/kg Good time for sports drinks or juice, or low protein energy bar Water intake throughout the day should remain a priority! So what about “carb-loading”?
Timing of meals: During Game The focus during competition is to actively replace fluids lost through sweat Bring your own water bottle Primary intake of carbs should come in the form of sips of sports drinks if competition lasts more than 1 hour Sports drinks that supplement electrolytes lost through sweat are beneficial, but often over used Water should be consumed periodically throughout game time- 5-10 oz water every 15-20 minutes if possible
Timing of Meals: Recovery The MOST important phase in regards to sports nutrition Extensive studies show that a significant amount of carbs with 15-20 gms of protein 15-30 minutes after competition or practice is absolutely essential to improving and sustaining athletic performance and preventing fatigue! It MUST be within the first 15-60 minutes after a game to rapidly replenish glycogen stores in the muscle 15-20 gms of protein during this time frame prevents muscle breakdown and assists with muscle building and repair The recovery phase continues for about 18-20 hours
Timing of Meals: The Plan Pre-Game/Exercise Plan Night before: Healthy meal with complex carbs, healthy fats, protein, water AM meal: Whole grains, protein, fresh fruit, milk, water Snack: Fresh fruit or snack bar, water Lunch (3-4 hrs before game): 1- 2gms carbs/kg with.15-.25gms protein/kg, 17-20oz water Snack: (0.5-1 hrs before) 1-2gm carbs/kg, 5-10oz water If it is a long trip to the game bring fresh fruit, energy bar or juice and water Recovery Period 15-60 minutes post game: 1-2gms carbs/kg with no more than 15-20gms protein, water. Recommended is 8oz of chocolate milk 2hrs post game: full meal with a mix of complex carbs and 15-30gms of protein and healthy vegetables, water Recovery phase can last for greater than 20 hours, make sure you refuel with carbs and plenty of water to reduce fatigue and improve next day performance
Putting Recovery First Recovery nutrition has to be planned #1 Choice for the 15-30 minute window post game is….. Easy to pack post-game food for the ride home Apple or banana with peanut butter 1 oz Beef Jerky with ½ c grapes Dried fruit and nuts Recovery Bar with an orange PB and honey sandwich Bagel with peanut butter Coconut water, crackers, string cheese
A Word About Ergogenic Aids Eat right first and you won’t need to supplement Energy drinks can lead to heart palpitations, seizures, cardiac arrest and even death when used to increase energy and performance while training and/or competing Steroid use has a long list of known side effects Most ergogenic aids are banned by the NCAA Protein supplementation is not necessary as dietary intake is typically adequate.