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Physics 11 Advanced Mr. Jean March 5 th, 2012

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The plan: Video clip of the day Intro to forces Forces continued Inertia Newton’s Laws of Motion. Mass & weight

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Dynamics: Kinematics - the study of how objects move (velocity and acceleration). Dynamics - the study of why objects move. –Chapter 4 (Today’s class) P. 124 - 137

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Sir Isaac Newton: The connection between acceleration and its cause can be summarized by three statements known as Newton's laws of motion. – the cause of acceleration is a force. Newton published the three laws of motion in 1687

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Forces: What is a force? – a force is defined as a push or a pull. Some forces occur when one object touches another. Some objects are pulled by a force called gravity. Some forces, like that of gravity, cause an object to accelerate.

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Forces: Forces are vectors thus they will need a direction to indicate how the force is acting on an object. Example: –Buoyant Force (+) –Gravitational Force (-)

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Natural forces: 1) Gravitational force: an attractive force that exists between all objects. It is the weakest force. 2) Electromagnetic force: these forces result from electric charge. Charged particles at rest or in motion exert electric charges on one another and particles in motion produce magnetic forces on each other. It is very large compared to the gravitational force.

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3) Strong nuclear force: holds the particles in the nucleus of an atom together. It is the strongest force but only acts over the distance of a nucleus. 4) Weak force: it is a form of the electromagnetic force. And is involved in the radioactive decay of some nuclei.

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Demo #1: April Fools Prank Mystery Physics Box A Mystery Physics Box B

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Newton’s Laws of Motion: Newton's First Law: Inertia –An object with no net force acting on it remains at rest or with a constant velocity.

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Newton’s Laws of Motion: Newton's First Law: Inertia –an object with no force acting on it moves with constant velocity. –“Things at rest stay at rest and things in motion stay in motion”

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Demonstration 2: Rolling a ball across the floor. What’s the force that is keeping the ball rolling?

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Demonstration 2 Paul Hewitt conceptual physics quotation on this demonstration. “No force, we don’t know why it keeps going. But we call that ignorance Inertia. No body know why it keeps going, we just know that it does.” Even today people still believe that a force is required to keep an object moving.

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Balanced Forces:

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Inertia - tendency for an object not to change its motion.

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Textbook Transfer Demonstration:

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Inertia is the tendency for an object not to change its motion.

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How to fix a hammer Demonstration:

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Marble & Beaker

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Inertia Demonstrations: Newspaper vs. piece of wood

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Inertia Demonstrations: Pennies & thin blade

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Inertia Demonstrations: String & weight demonstration

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Inertia Demonstrations: Hammer, Nails & Block of wood

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Circle Motion Demonstration:

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Balanced Forces: A marble is accelerated by an force in the rightward direction. The marble rolls along a frictionless level surface. –What will happen to the objects velocity? –What role does acceleration play?

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Unbalanced Forces: A marble is accelerated by an force in the rightward direction. The marble rolls down an inclined plane. –What will happen to the objects velocity? –What role does acceleration play?

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Unbalanced Force: A marble is accelerated by an force in the rightward direction. The marble begins to roll up the inclined plane. –What will happen to the marbles velocity? –What role does acceleration play?

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Inertia Demonstrations: Hammer, Nails & Block of wood

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Circle Motion Demonstration:

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Newton’s Second Law: “to move an object with mass you need a force.” the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force on it and inversely proportional to its mass. Force = (mass)(acceleration) F = m a

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International Units (SI) QuantitySymbolSI Unit Force Mass Acceleration FmaFma N (Newtons) Kg (Kilograms) m/s 2 (metres per second squared)

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F = m a

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A net force acting on an object causes it to accelerate. The larger the mass of an object, the smaller the acceleration. Thus a massive object has more inertia than a less massive object.

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Unit of force - a force that causes a mass of one kg to accelerate at a rate of one meter per second squared is one newton (N). F = ma = (1.00kg)(1.00m/s 2 ) = 1.00N 1N = 1kgm/s 2

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Common misconception: WEIGHT DOES NOT EQUAL MASS!

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Weight: An objects weight is F g is the product of its mass m, and the acceleration due to gravity, g. F g = mg F g = force of gravity in newtons (N) m = mass in kilograms (kg) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s 2 )

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To do for tomorrow: P. 137 Questions 1-4

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Newton’s Third Law: “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts a force on the first that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

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Force Diagram: How to start diagrams with forces in place.

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Example Questions: 1)What net force is required to accelerate a 1500.00 kg race car at 3.00 m/s 2 on a frictionless surface?

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Forces are vectors: Forces are vectors. To understand the effects of forces in two directions, we assign signs. If we sum up the forces acting on an object, we can find the net force acting on an object.

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P.133 Gravity table: Here is the weight of 1000g. 1) What is the weight this object on Earth? 2)... on the moon? 3)... on Jupiter?

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To do for tomorrow: P. 137 Questions 1-4

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Chapter #4 - Dynamics Mr. Jean

Chapter #4 - Dynamics Mr. Jean

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