Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Teams and Teamwork Learning Goals"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 16: Teams and Teamwork Learning Goals I can:Define and explain terms related to teams and teamworkExplain why teams are used in businessExplain the advantages and disadvantages of teamsDescribe types of teams in businesses (formal/informal, committees, departments)Explain and describe factors that contribute to success and failure of teamsIdentify and describe the stages of team developmentDescribe the roles individuals take on in a team
2What is a team?A group of people with complementary skills required to complete a task, job or projectTeamwork is the process of people working together to accomplish these goals
3Why do Organizations Use Teams/Groups? When people are organized to work together they create synergySynergy creation of a whole greater than the sum of its parts
4Teamwork Exercise: Islands Group of six7 sheets of paper in a rowTeam members line up on paper but leave middle sheet emptyTeam members face each otherTask:Get all team members to be directly opposite of where they are nowCan only move past one person at a timeMust step onto open sheet of paperMust move past someone in front of youTwo people cannot be on same sheetDescribe the team experience
5Teamwork Pros and Cons Social loafing Personality conflicts Greater resources for problem solvingGreater creativity and innovationImproved quality of decision makingGreater commitment to tasksHigher motivationBetter control and disciplineMore individual need satisfactionSocial loafingPersonality conflictsDifferences in work stylesTask ambiguityPoor readiness to work
6Using Teams Teams have many advantages For teams to work well, members need training in group dynamicsConsider:How much time to sports or performance teams spend practicing for the “big event”? (90%)How much time to business group members spend learning and practicing working in a team (5%)Group members often learn in front of clients and customers where mistakes are costly
7ReflectThink about group work you recently experienced. Do you think the ideas you generated as a group were more diverse and of better quality than if you came up with ideas on your own?
8Types of Teamsmost common use of group work in business is the meetingMany people do not approach meetings enthusiasticallySurvey showed 27% of respondents view meetings as biggest time wasterWhy do meetings fail?
9Seven sins of deadly meetings People arrive late, leave early, and don’t take things seriouslyThe meeting is too long, sometimes twice as long as necessaryPeople don’t stay on topic; they digress and are easily distractedThe discussion lacks candour; people are unwilling to tell the truthThe right information isn’t available, so decisions are postponedNothing happens when the meeting is over; no one puts decisions into actionsThings never get better; the same mistakes are made meeting after meeting
10Formal and Informal Teams Formal groupsInformal groupsTeams officially recognized and supported by the organization for specific purposesCreated to perform tasksManagers serve linking pin rolesE.g. work group consisting of manager and subordinatesNot recognized on organization chartNot officially created for organizational purposesEmerge as part of informal structureFrom natural or spontaneous relationships among peopleCan have positive performance impactCan help satisfy social needsInclude interest, friendship and support groups
11To What Groups do You Belong? List all the formal and informal groups to which you belong. Do you belong to more formal or informal groups? Which groups have the biggest impact on your actions?
12Temporary Teams Task force Product Design Team Committee Assembled to investigate a specific issue or problemExample: a drop in sales in one productProduct Design TeamCreated to design a new product or serviceExample: team assembled to create something brand newCommitteePut together to act upon some matterExample: health and safety committee to inform employeesCross-Functional TeamGroup of people with different skills put together to carry out all phases of a project from start to finishExample: creating and launching a new productVirtual TeamElectronic work group who interact and solve problems mostly electronically
13Permanent Teams Work Team Quality Circle Group of workers who share a common mission and collectively manager their own affairs within predetermined boundariesQuality CircleGroup of workers from the same functional area who meet regularly to uncover and solve work-related problems and seek work improvement opportunities
14Types of Teams QuizTypes of Teams Quiz (elearning Ontario, Unit 3 Activity 3 Assignment)
15How Teams Work Group Process: The way the members of any team work together as they transform inputs into outputsAlso known as group dynamicsIncludes communications, decision making, norms, cohesion and conflict, among others
16Team EffectivenessEffective teams achieve high levels of performance, member satisfaction and viability for future actionFactors affecting Effectiveness:Nature of TaskComplex or simpleHow well-definedAffects how intense the process needs to be to get the job doneOrganizational SettingAmount of support provided, i.e., information, resources, technolgoy, rewards, spaceTeam SizeLarger than six or seven members can be difficult to manageOdd numbers prevent ties in votesTeam DiversityMore homogeneous groups -- easier to manage relationshipsMore diversity – more ideas, perspectives and experiencesGroup ProcessHow well the groups works together, handles conflicts, communicates, etc.
17Stages of Group Development Five Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, AdjourningForming:Orientation an getting to know you stageGroup members should:Define goalsDetermine how to approach the taskFigure out what skills will be requiredIn this stage the group builds relationships and clarifies the group mission
18Stages of Group Development: Storming Group is in conflict because of differing opinions on what it is supposed to do and how it will do itMembers beginning to see differences in personalities and valuesMembers feel angry or frustrated with other membersSometimes groups get stuck in this stage and performance drops
19Stages of Group Development: Norming Stage of resolutionGroup resolves issuesGroup learns more about one anotherFigures out how they are going to work togetherGroup makes progress toward their goals
20Stages of Group Development: Performing Groups gets the work done and begins accomplishing goalsEnergized by positive progress and communicate openlyHigh energyConflicts resolved without issueWork accomplished most effectively
21Stages of Group Development: Adjourning Task is completeGroup is disbandedMembers feel a sense of lossMembers should spend time recognizing the team’s accomplishments
22Creating Successful Teams As teams work through the stages of team development, they must develop shared norms and cohesivenessNormsRules that the group develops for appropriate and inappropriate behaviours and attitudesOften unwritten rules of behaviourConflict will result if these rules are not developed in the first few stagesViolation of norms usually results in reprimands or expulsion from the teamPerformance NormsRules regarding the work effort and performance expected from team membersExamples of norms: helpfulness, participation, timeliness, quality of work
23Creating Successful Teams Group CohesivenessDegree to which the team develops a bondProductive teams develop:strong levels of participation, cooperation and collaborationbecause memberstrust, share sense of group identify and have confidence in their effectiveness
25For Best Results… Increase Team Cohesion Establish Positive Performance Norms
26Group Decision-Making Lack of ResponseIdeas are presented without discussion; decision made by by-passing all other ideas without evaluationAuthority RuleTeam leader makes the decision for the teamMinority RuleTwo or three members “railroad” the team or pressure the team into accepting an ideaOften done by forcing quick decisions, “Does anyone object?” “Let’s go ahead then”Majority RuleFormal voting takes place; majority wins
27Group Decision Making Consensus Unanimity Discussion leads to one idea being supported by most and others agree to support itIdeas are fully discussed and evaluatedUnanimityAll team members agree on the idea to be accepted and implemented
28Group Decision Making Advantages Disadvantages Greater amounts of information, knowledge and expertiseIncreased number of alternatives consideredIncreases understanding and acceptanceIncreases commitment to follow throughSocial pressure to conformIndividual or minority group dominationTime requirements
29Problems in Groups Social Loafing Groupthink Free riders think they won’t be noticedPeople who do not contribute to the groupGroupthinkGroup members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideasSymptoms of Groupthink:Believing the group is invincibleRationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming dataBelief in inherent group moralityNegative stereotypes of competitorsPressure to conformSelf-censorship of membersIllusions of unanimityMind guards – those who protect the group from contrary viewpoints
30Groupthink Case Study Space shuttle Challenger, January 28, 1986 Launch had been delayed previously due to weatherNASA did not want to delay againEngineers expressed concern about the O-rings on the shuttle, fearing that they may fail due to cool weatherNASA launch group accepted positive comments for the launch but rejected any negative commentsNASA launched, O-rings failed, shuttle exploded shortly after lift offAll crew members, including the first civilian in space, a school teacher and mother, were killed