Presentation on theme: "Integrated Greywater Management Policies for Large Water Consumers in Vulnerable Communities in Jordan WaDImena End-of-Project Forum Nisreen AL-Hmoud (PhD)"— Presentation transcript:
Integrated Greywater Management Policies for Large Water Consumers in Vulnerable Communities in Jordan WaDImena End-of-Project Forum Nisreen AL-Hmoud (PhD) April, 19 th 2010
Water Demand Management in Jordan Jordan is facing a future of very limited water resources, among the lowest in the world on a per capita basis. Available water resources in Jordan is around 867 MCM per year, while the water demand for different sectors is 1505 MCM per year. In 1997, the government of Jordan issued the Jordan's Water Strategy in which management of water resources was addressed.
In 2009-Water for Life: Jordan’s Water Strategy 2008-2022 The Water Strategy for Jordan identifies our plans for our future water and the actions that we will take to ensure that water is available for people, business and nature. It sets the vision of what we want to have by 2022. It looks at all aspects of the water cycle from rainfall to collection, treatment and discharge. The practical steps we will need to take include an effective Water Demand Management, an efficient Water Supply Operations and a well developed institutional reform.
Universities, hotels, governmental institutions and others are considered large water consumers in Jordan. Many of these large water consumers exist among rural and vulnerable communities. The total number of universities in Jordan had grown from (3) in 1986 to (24) in 2006. These facilities consume huge amounts of water with high quality for different purposes, and hence generate huge amounts of wastewater (black and grey) in the absence of appropriate water demand management schemes in general. Deterioration of agricultural lands in rural areas as a result of water shortage. Lack of awareness and know-how in the field of greywater management, treatment and reuse among universities students, staff and the surrounding communities. Little attention has been paid to investigate and adopt water demand management programs on the institutional level and for large water consumers in a participatory approach. Problems and Justification
Mutah University, where the research project has been conducted, was established during the eighties of last century in Al-Karak governorate, which is considered a peri-urban area located about (130km) to the south of Amman. Project Location
The average water consumption in Mutah University is 384000 m 3 per year. The average family size of the targeted communities is about 6 persons/family. The average monthly income rate in the study area is estimated at 553 JD. About 83% of the inhabitants own agricultural lands surrounding their houses. The main constraint for utilizing agricultural lands is the scarcity of water. 64% of the population in the project area depend on public water network for irrigating planted areas in the backyards. 13% of the inhabitants depend on tankers for irrigation with an average entailed cost of 13.8 JD/tanker.
Main Problem "little, if any, attention has been paid to investigate and adopt, in a participatory approach and with active participation of the community, an integrated national framework for greywater management on the institutional level and for large water consumers in Jordan in view of the water shortage in the country".
Objectives To develop and promote a policy on greywater management for large water consumers in Jordan as stated in the country's Wastewater Management Policy. To ensure stakeholders involvement and motivate public participation in water demand management issues. To improve the livelihoods of vulnerable communities through the utilization of non- conventional water resources. To manage the demand on scarce freshwater resources as per the requirements of the Jordan's Water Strategy.
I.To ensure stakeholders involvement and motivate public participation and to provide the opportunity of interaction of the community with already existing relevant activities in Jordan. Formal and informal informative meetings targeted community leaders, municipalities’ directors, local communities, university staff, NGOs and CBOs.
Formulation of the Citizen Advisory Group (CAG). Formulation of the Steering Committee: Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, and Badia Research and Development Center.
Technical field visits to wastewater and greywater treatment plant and reuse projects.
Awareness Campaigns (targeting housewive, students, public health inspectors, A’EMMA of mosques). Introduce people to the environmental issues and problems with special emphasis on water scarcity, water pollution, causes and solutions; greywater management, treatment and reuse and role of communities in water resources management.
The Environmental Festival Embroidered needlework, which have been weaved by housewives in the targeted community.
II.Work with all stakeholders, including the community, in identifying best techniques for greywater collection, treatment and reuse at large water consumers (universities). Greywater Quality and Quantity:
ParameterUnit Showers and Wash- basins Kitchen sinks and Floor washing pHSU7.65.71 ECµs/cm679857 TSSmg/L58234 BOD 5 mg/L39356 CODmg/L167845 NO 3 mg/L<0.1 T.Kj.Nmg/L9.619.5 NH 3 mg/L5.2< 4.5 T-Pmg/L8.128.51 Namg/L6093 Clmg/L5786 MBASmg/L9.810.6 TCCMPN/100mL1.7 x 10 6 1.7 x 10 9 TFCCMPN/100mL1.0 x 10 5 2.1 x 10 8 E. coliMPN/100mL4.7 x 10 4 3.7 x 10 7 SO 4 mg/L5362 FOGmg/L< 8 Camg/L48 Mgmg/L2219 Kmg/L5.813.8 SARmg/L1.73.1
Establishment of expert committee (the research team, steering committee and local wastewater treatment and reuse experts): Role of Committee: discuss and evaluate an affordable and attractive management options for greywater treatment that are suitable for the greywater quality, local environment, economic and social conditions.
Selection of the treatment plant (a septic tank/ISF).
Performance of the First Treatment Unit. ParameterUnitDTEff.Efficiency (%) BOD 5 mg/l93.805.9094 CODmg/l213.2017.5092 ECµs/cm674.50822.60- TSSmg/l56.907.5087 pHSU7.607.50- NH 3 mg/l7.20< 4.5- TKjNmg/l15.30< 4.5- TPmg/l2.401.154 Clmg/l53.5086.90- Camg/l58.5069.10- Mgmg/l17.0021.60- SO 4 mg/l33.247.4- NO 3 mg/l< 0.18.74- TCCMPN/100ml4.4E+061.7E+04- TFCCMPN/100ml2.4E+054.0E+03- E. coliMPN/100ml2.4E+0447098 MBASmg/l9.320.9190 FOGmg/l< 8 - Namg/l55.6765.90- Kmg/l5.709.40- Bmg/l0.300.346-
Reclaimed water was assessed for its reuse potentials based on its quality and by referring to local and international guidelines. The greenhouse was prepared for planting by laying gravel stones and partitioning it into small beds to be fit for ornamental plants.
III. Disseminate the knowledge gained and lessons learned using a wide range of methods designed to target different audiences. Field visits to the first treatment plant by the CAG:
Educational field visits to the project site by the School Students.
Field visits to the first treatment system by the Community Members.
Second Treatment Plant. Demonstration Farm with Greywater System.
Greywater Quality and Quantity from AL-Furat Dorm.
ParameterUnitResult pHSU7.14 ECµs/cm1194 TSSmg/l59 BOD 5 mg/l163 CODmg/l325 NO 3 mg/l< 0.1 T.Kj.Nmg/l< 4.5 NH 3 mg/l< 4.5 T-Pmg/l2.8 Namg/l108 Clmg/l174 MBASmg/l5.5 TCCMPN/100ml4.2E+07 TFCCMPN/100ml2.4E+05 E. coliMPN/100ml7.6E+04 SO 4 mg/l105 FOGmg/l< 8 Camg/l81 Mgmg/l43 Kmg/l8 SARmg/l7.73 Bmg/l0.44
Construction of the Second Treatment Plant at AL-Furat Dorm.
Septic Tank Followed by ISF (Second Treatment Plant) in the Demonstration Farm at Merwad Village.
IV. Working with the project steering committee on issuing guidelines for greywater management in large water consumers. Arabic Guidelines for greywater management in the students and staff dormitories at Jordanian Universities: The Guidelines contains details for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the ISF. The Guidelines targets local people, individuals and / or organizations working in construction, operation and maintenance of on-site greywater treatment units.
V. Disseminating the recommendations, findings, and knowledge gained among different universities and large water consumers. A Large Water Consumers Workshop
Project Outputs Public awareness and community know-how in fields of greywater management and water use efficiency was improved. Treatment of 5 m 3 /day of greywater generated from the female dorm (inside the university) and 3 m 3 /day of generated from Al-Furat private dorm (outside the university) by using Septic Tank followed by Intermittent Sand Filter ISF. The overall efficiency of the ISF had exceed 95%.
An ornamental nursery was established near-by the treatment unit inside the female dorm campus. The income of the greenhouse was allocated for the “Needed Student Fund” at Mutah University. An agricultural land (demonstration land) was developed in the project area, which will contribute in income generation for the land owner. The frequency of cesspools pump-outs was reduced; the average entailed cost has been reduced by 100 JD by separating greywater in Al-Furat dorm and directing it to the adjacent treatment plant (inside the demonstration land). Project Outputs (cont.)
Governmental attention to greywater reuse among large water consumers have been drawn. The Steering Committee discussed and suggested modifying the new standard for greywater reuse JS 1776:2007 “Reclaimed Greywater in Rural Areas” so as to add new items for greywater management in large water consumers (more than 1.5m 3 water consumption/day). Project Outputs (cont.)
Efforts should be focused on large water consumers (hotels and universities) since the amount of greywater generated from these sectors is significant and has good reuse potential, and thus contributes in safeguarding the scarce resource. Enhancing the role of universities and other large water consumers in the development of the surrounding communities. Recommendations
Up-scaling and replicating the project at other universities so as to establish a database about greywater management in large water consumers. This would also contribute in developing the guidelines further and to address the issue in a suitable national policy. Adopting the participatory approach during the implementation of any greywater management project is very important to achieve sustainability and to ensure project success. Recommendations (cont.)