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How to Improve March 2012. Disclaimer Please be aware that legal provisions governing the advertising of pharmaceutical preparation may differ from country.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Improve March 2012. Disclaimer Please be aware that legal provisions governing the advertising of pharmaceutical preparation may differ from country."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Improve March 2012

2 Disclaimer Please be aware that legal provisions governing the advertising of pharmaceutical preparation may differ from country to country, as a consequence of which this document has not been checked against all jurisdictions. It is the responsibility of the Boehringer Ingelheim OPU to check on a local basis.

3 How to Improve Optimisation of Stroke Patient Management – Pre-hospital

4 Raising Public Awareness Campaigns Target the general public as stroke witnesses Symptom awareness Awareness to take action Keep the message easy The ultimate aim is to keep the time to treatment as short as possible Public awareness campaigns can increase ambulance dispatches for stroke Example of a German stroke awareness campaign

5 Stroke Chain of Survival Rapid patient recognition and reaction to stroke warning signs Rapid emergency medical services (EMS) dispatch Rapid EMS system transport and hospital pre-notification Delivery direct to imaging Rapid in-hospital diagnosis and treatment Effective EMS systems can minimise delays in pre-hospital dispatch, assessment, and transport, and ultimately increase the number of stroke patients reaching the hospital and being prepared for thrombolytic therapy within the approved time window AHA. Circulation 2005;112: Wojner-Alexandrov. Stroke 2005;36: Deng et al. Neurology 2006;66:

6 Cincinnati Stroke Scale: A Checklist for Emergency Medical Dispatchers Govindarajan et al. BMC Neurology 2011;11:14. Total score: 3 Clear evidence of stroke 2 Strong evidence of stroke 1 Partial evidence of stroke 0 No evidence of stroke 3-Question ChecklistScore 1. Ask patient to smile Normal0 Slight difference1 Obvious difference3 Cannot complete at all 2. Ask patient to raise both arms above head Both arms raise equally0 One arm higher than the other1 Cannot complete request at all 3. Ask patient to say the early bird catches the worm Said correctly0 Slurred speech3 Garbled or not understood3 Cannot complete request at all

7 389/524 % thrombolysed patients according to transport mode Reiner-Deitemyer et al. Stroke 2011;42(5): / /745 1,050/5, /1, /11,289 84/2,442 (n=2,501 thrombolysed patients) % of patients HEMS AMBPAMB Hospital Arrival Times and Thrombolysis Rates in AIS Patients According to Mode of Transport % patients arriving within 2 h of stroke onset according to transport mode 80 38/111 2,668/3, /708 3,499/6, /1, % of patients HEMS AMBPAMB Direct transport to a stroke unit Indirect: transferred from a peripheral hospital HEMS, helicopter emergency service AMBP, ambulance with accompanying physician AMB, ambulance without accompanying physician

8 Pre-admission Notification by EMS: The Best Way to Shorten Door-to-Needle Time Didier Leys, personal communication. Ischaemic strokes admitted at the Lille University Hospital Thrombolysis rate: 22.5% Median DNT: 41 min Thrombolysis rate: 5.1% Median DNT: 57 min After emergency call = 50% No emergency call = 50% Not adjusted on case-mix. A part of the difference may be explained by differences in profiles

9 Interaction Between Pre- and Intra-hospital Services Regional committee with EMS, ED, neurologists, radiologists, rehab physicians, patients organisations, administration and health authorities to organise stroke care at the regional level (3 per year) Joint teaching activities (national training program for stroke) Annual meeting with all physicians in the area, involved in stroke care for continuous training Population campaigns Registries to evaluate the network EMS, emergency medical services ED, emergency doctor

10 How to Improve Optimisation of Stroke Patient Management – In-hospital

11 Ways to Improve rt-PA Application in Hospital Prenotification that patient is on the way and direct access to imaging Rapid triage by emergency physician or paramedic before arrival Vital parameters stabilised (O 2, temperature) 2 medium-large bore venous lines with cristalloid infusions on one or both POC test for blood glucose ( mg/dl) and INR BP optimum ( mmHg systolic) NIHSS assessment Priority CT/imaging access Use scales such as ASPECTS Rapid read, always neurologist and radiologist to analyse images Set-up that allows weighing the patient e.g. lying in CT/imaging Decision to treat and bolus application in the CT/imaging suite Decision whether to perform additional imaging or rescue treatment in CT/imaging suite Fonarow et al. Stroke 2011;42: ; Adams et al. Stroke 2007;38:

12 SITS: Door-to-Needle vs Time Window SITS-Database https://sitsinternational.org 0:000:301:001:302:002:30 2:00 1:30 1:00 0:30 0:00 Time from arrival to treatment (Door-to-needle time) Time from symptom onset to arrival (Prehospital time) Doctors who have more time, take more time, but the sooner thrombolysis is initiated, the greater the benefit

13 Target: Stroke A multidimensional initiative from the AHA/ASA Aim: to ensure that as many patients as possible with AIS achieve a DTN 60 min 10 key best practice strategies, associated with faster DTN: Fonarow et al. Stroke 2011;42: EMS pre-notification 2.Rapid triage protocol and stroke team notification 3.Single call to active stroke team 4.Stroke tools 5.Rapid imaging and interpretation 6.Rapid laboratory testing and POC test 7.Premixing rt-PA 8.Rapid access to rt-PA 9.Team-based approach 10.Rapid data feedback AIS, acute ischaemic stroke DTN, door-to-needle time POC, point of care Follow-up will be after 1 year, in line with GWTG-Stroke data and rate of improvement in DTN

14 NIH-recommended Emergency Department Response Times NINDS NIH website. Stroke proceedings. Latest update DTN 60 min: the golden hour for evaluating and treating acute stroke T=0 Suspected stroke patient arrives at stroke unit 10 min Initial MD evaluation (including patient history, lab work initiation, & NIHSS) 15 min Stroke team notified (including neurologic expertise) 25 min CT scan initiated 45 min CT & labs interpreted 60 min rt-PA given if patient is eligible IDEALLY performed prehospital

15 Preparing the Patient for rt-PA in 30 min (Optimally 15 min) Vital parameters, sugar, INR 5min (3min) History, Labs, call CT 3min (2min) NIHSS 5min (2min) CT (with rt-PA at hand) To CT 5min (2min) CT 5min (4min) Reading 3min (1min) ICH ? Large and/or demarcated infarction ? Measure / Estimate weight 1min (0min) Prepare rt-PA, inject 3min (1min) Personal communication, Peter Schellinger, Jan 2011.

16 How to Improve Optimisation of Stroke Patient Management - Networks

17 Stroke Network Hacke. Personal communication, unpublished. Neuroradiology Ultrasound Central Admission Neuro Emergency Room Stroke Unit Neurocritical Care Unit Rehabilitation Geriatric Rehabilitation Outpatient Care / GP Emergency Services Paramedics / Physicians Stroke networks and protocols are essential to ensure as many patients as possible are treated as quickly as possible

18 Benefits of Integrated Stroke Networks Centralised emergency number ensures one stop access to stroke care Call centre triages patients prior to dispatch of emergency team Transport patient to a stroke centre as quickly as possible after symptom onset Direct transport to stroke centre Rapid transfer from non-stroke centre Telemedicine 24/7 acute specialty cover within a region Ensure the right care for the right patient at the right time Ongoing coordination of multiple clinical services throughout stroke care Carr et al. Acad Emerg Med 2010;17: Rymer. OMAG Mar-Apr 2010, available online.

19 Benefits of Integrated Stroke Networks Stroke Networks Centralised emergency number ensures one stop access to stroke care Call centre triages patients prior to dispatch of emergency team Transport patient to a stroke centre as quickly as possible after symptom onset Ongoing coordination of multiple clinical services throughout stroke care Ensure the right care for the right patient at the right time 24/7 acute specialty cover within a region Direct transport to stroke centre Rapid transfer from non- stroke centre Telemedicine Carr et al. Acad Emerg Med 2010;17: Rymer. OMAG Mar-Apr 2010, available online.

20 How to Improve Optimisation of Stroke Patient Management - Telemedicine

21 Remote rural area Public awareness Costs and funding <24/7 access to facilities Inexperienced* physicians Stroke facilities not available Geography Knowledge Funding Rationale for Telemedicine in Stroke * Refers to physicians not working in a stroke unit Geography, lack of knowledge and poor funding are the 3 main reasons for unequal access to stroke care, and the rationale behind telemedicine

22 TeleStroke Unit Concept Specialised stroke wards in community hospitals 24-hour availability of diagnostics/monitoring Stroke teams Standardised stroke care protocols Comprehensive stroke training for all staff Continuous quality management Telemedicine network

23 Telemedicine for Thrombolysis ICU stroke unit 24-h emergency MRI 24-h stroke neurologist nurses, rehab … Community hospital CT scan Can overcome geographical barriers, may save money and improve knowledge in acute stroke care

24 TEMPiS: Telethrombolysis as Effective as Stroke Centres and RCTs Schwab et al. Neurology 2007;69: university stroke centres 132 rt-PA patients (69.6 years, NIHSS 11) 11.5% death 30.9% good outcome (mRS 1) 11.2% death 39.5% good outcome (mRS 1) 170 rt-PA patients (69.4 years, NIHSS 12) 12 community hospitals 24-h telemedicine image transmission Continuous stroke teaching RCT, randomised controlled trial mRS, modified Rankin Scale

25 TEMPiS: Telemedicine Networks Can Improve Other Aspects of Stroke Care Audebert et al. Lancet Neurol 2006;5: Use of telemedicine not only gives patients rapid access to specialised care, but can also increase accessibility to other stroke services

26 TEMPiS: One Year Results TEMPiS (N=1,883) Control (N=1,085) p Death (%)2325 Severe disability at home or institutional care (%) 2331 Without severe disability at home (%) 5444<0.001* Audebert et al. Stroke 2009;40: *unadjusted outcome compared with death and institutional care and at home with severe disability

27 Telemedicine in Acute Stroke Learnings from TEMPiS Telemedicine-guided thrombolysis Is feasible Is safe and efficient TEMPiS improves many other aspects of acute stroke care Marked reduction of death and dependency (mRS >3) Audebert et al. Stroke 2009;40: Schwab et al. Neurology 2007;69:

28 How to Improve Summary

29 Summary: The Neurologists Perspective IV-thrombolysis is the second most powerful AIS intervention available (after stroke unit) Stroke experts are needed Optimisation of infrastructure will Increase thrombolysis rates Improve safety Shorten time to treatment TeleStroke can help to achieve treatment goals (best within TeleStroke units) Take every effort to shorten time to treatment Audebert. Presentation at the ESC in Hamburg, Lab results CT- exam trans port CT- applic. blood tests neuro exam body- check medical history nursing admission regi- stration hand- over trans- port transport preparation arrival quick check

30 Summary: The Emergency Physicians Perspective Education campaigns Calling the right number Early stroke recognition Prenotification of patient arrival Preparation of patient for thrombolysis, including iv access, blood samples, etc Take every effort to shorten time to treatment Use of protocols Organisation and evaluation of networks Lambert. Presentation at the ESC in Hamburg, Lab results CT- exam trans port CT- applic. blood tests neuro exam body- check medical history nursing admission regi- stration hand- over trans- port transport preparation arrival quick check

31 Both Perspectives: Improving AIS Management Raise public awareness Improve pre-hospital stroke recognition Immediate transfer to stroke centre Optimisation of infrastructure Networking Audebert. Presentation at the ESC in Hamburg, pre-hospital in-hospital Lab results CT- exam trans port CT- applic. blood tests neuro exam body- check medical history nursing admission regi- stration hand- over trans- port transport preparation arrival quick check Monitoring of processes

32 Prescribing information Actilyse®

33 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Actilyse® Powder and solvent for solution for injection and infusion 2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION 1 vial with powder contains: 10 mg alteplase (corresponding to 5,800,000 IU) or 20 mg alteplase (corresponding to 11,600,000 IU) or 50 mg alteplase (corresponding to 29,000,000 IU), respectively. Alteplase is produced by recombinant DNA technique using a Chinese hamster ovary cell-line. The specific activity of alteplase in-house reference material is 580,000 IU/mg. This has been confirmed by comparison with the second international WHO standard for t-PA. The specification for the specific activity of alteplase is 522,000 to 696,000 IU/mg. For a full list of excipients, see section PHARMACEUTICAL FORM Powder and solvent for solution for injection and infusion. The powder is presented as a colourless to pale yellow lyophilizate cake. 4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS 4.1 Therapeutic indications: Thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction -90 minutes (accelerated) dose regimen (see section 4.2): for patients in whom treatment can be started within 6 h after symptom onset -3 h dose regimen (see section 4.2): for patients in whom treatment can be started between h after symptom onset provided that the diagnosis has been clearly confirmed. Actilyse has proven to reduce 30-day-mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Thrombolytic treatment in acute massive pulmonary embolism with haemodynamic instability The diagnosis should be confirmed whenever possible by objective means such as pulmonary angiography or non-invasive procedures such as lung scanning. There is no evidence for positive effects on mortality and late morbidity related to pulmonary embolism. Fibrinolytic treatment of acute ischaemic stroke Treatment must be started as early as possible within 4.5 hours after onset of stroke symptoms and after exclusion of intracranial haemorrhage by appropriate imaging techniques (e.g. cranial computerised tomography or other diagnostic imaging method sensitive for the presence of haemorrhage). The treatment effect is time-dependent; therefore earlier treatment increases the probability of a favourable outcome. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

34 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 4.2 Posology and method of administration Actilyse should be given as soon as possible after symptom onset. The following dose guidelines apply. Under aseptic conditions the content of an injection vial of Actilyse (10 mg or 20 mg or 50 mg) is dissolved with water for injections according to the following table to obtain either a final concentration of 1 mg alteplase/ml or 2 mg alteplase/ml: SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS Actilyse vial 10 mg20 mg50 mg Volume of water for injections to be added to dry powder: Final concentration (a) 1 mg alteplase/ml (ml) (b) 2 mg alteplase/ml (ml) The reconstituted solution should then be administered intravenously. It may be diluted further with sterile sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9 %) solution for injection up to a minimal concentration of 0.2 mg/ml. A dilution of the reconstituted solution with sterilised water for injections or in general, the use of carbohydrate infusion solutions, e.g. dextrose is not recommended. Actilyse should not be mixed with other medicinal products neither in the same infusion-vial nor the same catheter (not even with heparin). For further practical instructions for preparation and handling see sections 6.2 and 6.6. The experience in children and adolescents is limited. Actilyse is contraindicated for the treatment of acute stroke in children and adolescents (see section 4.3).

35 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. Myocardial infarction a)90 minutes (accelerated) dose regimen for patients with myocardial infarction, in whom treatment can be started within 6 hours after symptom onset: SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS In patients with a body weight below 65 kg the dose should be weight adjusted according to the following table: Concentration of alteplase 1 mg/ml2 mg/ml 15 mg as an intravenous bolus mg as an infusion over 30 minutes5025 followed by an infusion of 35 mg over 60 minutes until the maximal dose of 100 mg Concentration of alteplase 1 mg/ml2 mg/ml 15 mg as an intravenous bolus157.5 ml/kg bw and 0.75 mg/kg body weight (bw) over 30 minutes (maximum 50 mg) followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) over 60 minutes (maximum 35 mg)

36 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. b) 3 h dose regimen for patients, in whom treatment can be started between 6 and 12 hours after symptom onset: SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS In patients with a body weight below 65 kg the total dose should not exceed 1.5 mg/kg. The maximum dose of alteplase is 100 mg. Adjunctive therapy: Antithrombotic adjunctive therapy is recommended according to the current international guidelines for the management of patients with ST- elevation myocardial infarction; acetylsalicylic acid should be initiated as soon as possible after symptom onset and continued with lifelong treatment unless it is contraindicated. Concentration of alteplase 1 mg/ml2 mg/ml 10 mg as an intravenous bolus mg as an infusion over the first hour5025 ml/30 min followed by infusions of 10 mg over 30 minutes until the maximal dose of 100 mg over 3 hours 105

37 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. Pulmonary embolism A total dose of 100 mg of alteplase should be administered in 2 hours. Most experience is available with the following dose regimen: SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS The total dose should not exceed 1.5 mg/kg in patients with a body weight below 65 kg. Adjunctive therapy: After treatment with Actilyse heparin therapy should be initiated (or resumed) when aPTT values are less than twice the upper limit of normal. The infusion should be adjusted to maintain aPTT between seconds (1.5 to 2.5 fold of the reference value). Acute ischaemic stroke Treatment must only be performed under the responsibility and follow-up of a physician trained and experienced in neurovascular care, see sections 4.3 and 4.4. The recommended dose is 0.9 mg alteplase/kg body weight (maximum of 90 mg) infused intravenously over 60 minutes with 10% of the total dose administered as an initial intravenous bolus. Treatment with Actilyse must be started as early as possible within 4.5 hours of the onset of symptoms. Beyond 4.5 hours after onset of stroke symptoms there is a negative benefit risk ratio associated with Actilyse administration and so it should not be administered (see section 5.1). 5 Adjunctive therapy: The safety and efficacy of this regimen with concomitant administration of heparin and acetylsalicylic acid within the first 24 hours of onset of the symptoms have not been sufficiently investigated. Administration of acetylsalicylic acid or intravenous heparin should be avoided in the first 24 hours after treatment with Actilyse. If heparin is required for other indications (e.g. prevention of deep vein thrombosis) the dose should not exceed 10,000 IU per day, administered subcutaneously. Concentration of alteplase 1 mg/ml2 mg/ml 10 mg as an intravenous bolus over minutes105 followed by an intravenous infusion of 90 mg over 2 hours9045

38 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 4.3 Contraindications Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients. Additional contraindications in acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and acute ischaemic stroke: Actilyse is contraindicated in cases where there is a high risk of haemorrhage such as: significant bleeding disorder at present or within the past 6 months known haemorrhagic diathesis patients receiving oral anticoagulants, e.g. warfarin sodium manifest or recent severe or dangerous bleeding known history of or suspected intracranial haemorrhage suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage or condition after subarachnoid haemorrhage from aneurysm any history of central nervous system damage (i.e. neoplasm, aneurysm, intracranial or spinal surgery) recent (less than 10 days) traumatic external heart massage, obstetrical delivery, recent puncture of a non-compressible blood-vessel (e.g. subclavian or jugular vein puncture) severe uncontrolled arterial hypertension bacterial endocarditis, pericarditis acute pancreatitis documented ulcerative gastrointestinal disease during the last 3 months, oesophageal varices, arterial-aneurysm, arterial/venous malformations neoplasm with increased bleeding risk severe liver disease, including hepatic failure, cirrhosis, portal hypertension (oesophageal varices) and active hepatitis major surgery or significant trauma in past 3 months. Additional contraindications in acute myocardial infarction: any known history of haemorrhagic stroke or stroke of unknown origin known history of ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in the preceding 6 months, except current acute ischaemic stroke within 3 hours. Additional contraindications in acute pulmonary embolism: any known history of haemorrhagic stroke or stroke of unknown origin known history of ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in the preceding 6 months, except current acute ischaemic stroke within 3 hours. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

39 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. Additional contraindications in acute ischaemic stroke: symptoms of ischaemic attack beginning more than 4.5 hours prior to infusion start or symptoms for which the onset time is unknown and could potentially be more than 4.5 hours ago (see section 5.1) minor neurological deficit or symptoms rapidly improving before start of infusion severe stroke as assessed clinically (e.g. NIHSS>25) and/or by appropriate imaging techniques seizure at onset of stroke evidence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) on the CT-scan symptoms suggestive of subarachnoid haemorrhage, even if CT-scan is normal administration of heparin within the previous 48 hours and a thromboplastin time exceeding the upper limit of normal for laboratory patients with any history of prior stroke and concomitant diabetes prior stroke within the last 3 months platelet count of below 100,000/mm 3 systolic blood pressure > 185 or diastolic BP > 110 mm Hg, or aggressive management (intravenous pharmacotherapy) necessary to reduce BP to these limits blood glucose 400 mg/dl. Use in children and, adolescents Actilyse is not indicated for the treatment of acute stroke in paediatric patients under 18 years. Use in elderly patients Actilyse is not indicated for the treatment of acute stroke in adults over 80 years of age. 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use Special warnings and precautions in acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and acute ischaemic stroke: Thrombolytic/fibrinolytic treatment requires adequate monitoring. Actilyse should only be used by physicians trained and experienced in the use of thrombolytic treatments and with the facilities to monitor that use. It is recommended that when Actilyse is administered standard resuscitation equipment and pharmacotherapy be available in all circumstances. The risk of intracranial haemorrhage is increased in elderly patients, therefore in these patients the risk/benefit evaluation should be carried out carefully. As yet, there is only limited experience with the use of Actilyse in children and adolescents. As with all thrombolytic agents, the expected therapeutic benefit should be weighed up particularly carefully against the possible risk, especially in patients with small recent traumas, such as biopsies, puncture of major vessels, intramuscular injections, cardiac massage for resuscitation conditions with an increased risk of haemorrhage which are not mentioned in section 4.3. The use of rigid catheters should be avoided. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

40 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. Additional special warnings and precautions in acute myocardial infarction: A dose exceeding 100 mg of alteplase must not be given because it has been associated with an additional increase in intracranial bleeding. Therefore special care must be taken to ensure that the dose of alteplase infused is as described in section 4.2. There is limited experience with readministration of Actilyse. Actilyse is not suspected to cause anaphylactic reactions. If an anaphylactoid reaction occurs, the infusion should be discontinued and appropriate treatment initiated. The expected therapeutic benefit should be weighed up particularly carefully against the possible risk, especially in patients with systolic blood pressure > 160 mm Hg. GPIIb/IIIa antagonists: Concomitant use of GPIIb/IIIa antagonists increases the risk of bleeding. Additional special warnings and precautions in acute pulmonary embolism: same as for acute myocardial infarction (see above) Additional special warnings and precautions in acute ischaemic stroke: Special precautions for use: Treatment must only be performed under the responsibility and follow-up of a physician trained and experienced in neurovascular care. Special warnings / conditions with a decreased benefit/risk ratio: Compared to other indications patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated with Actilyse have a markedly increased risk of intracranial haemorrhage as the bleeding occurs predominantly into the infarcted area. This applies in particular in the following cases: all situations listed in section 4.3. and in general all situations involving a high risk of haemorrhage small asymptomatic aneurysms of the cerebral vessels with later time-to-treatment from onset of stroke symptoms the net clinical benefit is reduced and may be associated with a higher risk of ICH and death compared to patients treated earlier. Therefore, the administration of Actilyse should not be delayed. patients pre-treated with acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) may have a greater risk of intracerebral haemorrhage, particularly if Actilyse treatment is delayed. Blood pressure (BP) monitoring during treatment administration and up to 24 hours seems justified; an intravenous antihypertensive therapy is also recommended if systolic BP > 180 mm Hg or diastolic BP > 105 mm Hg. The therapeutic benefit is reduced in patients that had a prior stroke or in those with known uncontrolled diabetes, thus the benefit/risk ratio is considered less favourable, but still positive in these patients. In patients with very mild stroke, the risks outweigh the expected benefit (see section 4.3). Patients with very severe stroke are at higher risk for intracerebral haemorrhage and death and should not be treated (see section 4.3). Patients with extensive infarctions are at greater risk of poor outcome including severe haemorrhage and death. In such patients, the benefit/risk ratio should be thoroughly considered. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

41 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. In stroke patients the likelihood of good outcomes decreases with increasing age, increasing stroke severity and increased levels of blood glucose on admission while the likelihood of severe disability and death or relevant intracranial bleedings increases, independently from treatment. Patients over 80, patients with severe stroke (as assessed clinically and/or by appropriate imaging techniques) and patients with blood glucose levels 400 mg/dl at baseline should not be treated with Actilyse (see section 4.3). Data available from ECASS III and the pooled analysis indicate that the net clinical benefit becomes smaller in elderly with increasing age compared to younger patients as benefit from treatment with Actilyse appears to decrease and the risk of mortality appears to increase with increasing age. Other special warnings: Reperfusion of the ischaemic area may induce cerebral oedama in the infarcted zone. Due to an increased haemorrhagic risk, treatment with platelet aggregation inhibitors should not be initiated within the first 24 hours following thrombolysis with alteplase. 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction No formal interaction studies with Actilyse and medicinal products commonly administered in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been performed. The risk of haemorrhage is increased if coumarine derivatives, oral anticoagulants, platelet aggregation inhibitors, unfractionated heparin or LMWH or active substances which interfere with coagulation are administered (before, during or within the first 24 hours after treatment with Actilyse) (see section 4.3). Concomitant treatment with ACE inhibitors may enhance the risk of suffering an anaphylactoid reaction, as in the cases describing such reactions a relatively larger proportion of patients were receiving ACE inhibitors concomitantly. Concomitant use of GPIIb/IIIa antagonists increases the risk of bleeding. 4.6Pregnancy and lactation There is very limited experience with the use of alteplase during pregnancy and lactation. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). In cases of an acute life-threatening disease the benefit has to be evaluated against the potential risk. It is not known if alteplase is excreted into breast milk. 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines Not relevant. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

42 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 4.8 Undesirable effects Adverse reactions listed below are classified according to frequency and system organ class. Frequency groupings are defined according to the following convention: Very common (1/10), Common (1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (1/1,000 to <1/100), Rare (1/10,000 to <1/1,000), Very rare (<1/10,000), Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Except for intracranial haemorrhage as adverse reaction in the indication stroke and reperfusion arrhythmias in the indication myocardial infarction, there is no medical reason to assume that the qualitative and quantitative adverse reaction profile of Actilyse in the indications pulmonary embolism and acute ischaemic stroke is different from the profile in the indication myocardial infarction. Haemorrhage The most frequent adverse reaction associated with Actilyse is bleeding resulting in a fall in haematocrit and/or haemoglobin values: very common: bleeding from damaged blood vessels (such as haematoma), injection site haemorrhage (puncture site haemorrhage, catheter site haematoma, catheter site haemorrhage) common: intracranial haemorrhage (such as cerebral haemorrhage, cerebral haematoma, haemorrhagic stroke, haemorrhagic transformation of stroke, intracranial haematoma, subarachnoid haemorrhage) in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage represents the major adverse reaction in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (up to 10 % of patients without any increase of overall mortality and without any relevant increase in overall mortality and severe disability combined, i.e. mRS of 5 and 6), respiratory tract haemorrhage (such as pharyngeal haemorrhage, epistaxis, haemoptysis), gastrointestinal haemorrhage (such as gastric haemorrhage, gastric ulcer haemorrhage, haemorrhage, rectum, haematemesis, melaena, mouth haemorrhage, gingival bleeding), ecchymosis, urogenital haemorrhage (such as haematuria, haemorrhage urinary tract), blood transfusion (necessary) uncommon: intracranial haemorrhage (such as cerebral haemorrhage, cerebral haematoma, haemorrhagic stroke, haemorrhagic transformation of stroke, intracranial haematoma, subarachnoid haemorrhage) in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and acute pulmonary embolism, ear haemorrhage, haemopericardium, retroperitoneal haemorrhage (such as retroperitoneal haematoma) rare: bleeding in parenchymatous organs (such as hepatic haemorrhage, pulmonary haemorrhage) very rare: eye haemorrhage Death and permanent disability are reported in patients who have experienced stroke (including intracranial bleeding) and other serious bleeding episodes. If a potentially dangerous haemorrhage occurs in particular cerebral haemorrhage, the fibrinolytic therapy must be discontinued. In general, however, it is not necessary to replace the coagulation factors because of the short half-life and the minimal effect on the systemic coagulation factors. Most patients who have bleeding can be managed by interruption of thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy, volume replacement, and manual pressure applied to an incompetent vessel. Protamine should be considered if heparin has been administered within 4 hours of the onset of bleeding. In the few patients who fail to respond to these conservative measures, judicious use of transfusion products may be indicated. Transfusion of cryoprecipitate, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets should be considered with clinical and laboratory reassessment after each administration. A target fibrinogen level of 1 g/l is desirable with cryoprecipitate infusion. Antifibrinolytic agents are available as a last alternative. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

43 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. Immune system disorders uncommon: hypersensitivity reactions / anaphylactoid reactions (e.g. allergic reactions including rash, urticaria, bronchospasm, angio-oedema, hypotension, shock or any other symptom associated with allergic reactions) very rare: serious anaphylaxis Transient antibody formation to Actilyse has been observed in rare cases and with low titres, but a clinical relevance of this finding could not be established. Nervous system disorders very rare: events related to the nervous system (e.g. epileptic seizure, convulsion, aphasia, speech disorder, delirium, acute brain syndrome, agitation, confusion, depression, psychosis) often in association with concurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic cerebrovascular events. Cardiac disorders As with other thrombolytic agents, the following events have been reported as sequelae of myocardial infarction and / or thrombolytic administration. very common: recurrent ischaemia / angina, hypotension and heart failure / pulmonary oedema, reperfusion arrhythmias (such as arrhythmia, extrasystoles, AV block I° to complete, atrial fibrillation / flutter, bradycardia, tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation, electromechanical dissociation [EMD]) common: cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and reinfarction uncommon: mitral regurgitation, pulmonary embolism, other systemic embolism / cerebral embolism, ventricular septal defect These cardiac events can be life-threatening and may lead to death. Vascular disorders uncommon: embolism (thrombotic embolisation), which may lead to corresponding consequences in the organs concerned Gastrointestinal disorders common: nausea, vomiting Investigations very common: blood pressure decreased common: body temperature increased Injury and poisoning and procedural complications rare: fat embolism (cholesterol crystal embolisation), which may lead to corresponding consequences in the organs concerned 4.9 Overdose The relative fibrin specificity notwithstanding, a clinical significant reduction in fibrinogen and other blood coagulation components may occur after overdosage. In most cases, it is sufficient to await the physiological regeneration of these factors after the Actilyse therapy has been terminated. If, however, severe bleeding results, the infusion of fresh frozen plasma or fresh blood is recommended and if necessary, synthetic antifibrinolytics may be administered. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

44 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 5.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties Pharmacotherapeutic group: antithrombotic agent, ATC code: B 01 A D 02 The active ingredient of Actilyse is alteplase, a recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator, a glycoprotein, which activates plasminogen directly to plasmin. When administered intravenously, alteplase remains relatively inactive in the circulatory system. Once bound to fibrin, it is activated, inducing the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin leading to the dissolution of the fibrin clot. Due to its relative fibrin-specificity alteplase at a dose of 100 mg leads to a modest decrease of the circulating fibrinogen levels to about 60 % at 4 hours, which is generally reverted to more than 80 % after 24 hours. Plasminogen and alpha-2-antiplasmin decrease to about 20 % and 35 % respectively after 4 hours and increase again to more than 80 % at 24 hours. A marked and prolonged decrease of the circulating fibrinogen level is only seen in few patients. In a study including more than 40,000 patients with an acute myocardial infarction (GUSTO) the administration of 100 mg alteplase over 90 minutes, with concomitant intravenous heparin infusion, led to a lower mortality after 30 days (6.3 %) as compared to the administration of streptokinase, 1.5 million U over 60 minutes, with subcutaneous or intravenous heparin (7.3 %). Actilyse-treated patients showed higher infarct related vessel patency rates at 60 and 90 minutes after thrombolysis than the streptokinase-treated patients. No differences in patency rates were noted at 180 minutes or longer. 30-day-mortality is reduced as compared to patients not undergoing thrombolytic therapy. The release of alpha-hydroxybutyrate-dehydrogenase (HBDH) is reduced. Global ventricular function as well as regional wall motion is less impaired as compared to patients receiving no thrombolytic therapy. Myocardial infarction A placebo controlled trial with 100 mg alteplase over 3 hours (LATE) showed a reduction of 30-day-mortality compared to placebo for patients treated within 6-12 hours after symptom onset. In cases, in which clear signs of myocardial infarction are present, treatment initiated up to 24 hours after symptom onset may still be beneficial. Pulmonary embolism In patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism with haemodynamic instability thrombolytic treatment with Actilyse leads to a fast reduction of the thrombus size and a reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. Mortality data are not available. Acute stroke In two USA studies (NINDS A/B) a significant higher proportion of patients, had a favourable outcome with alteplase, compared to placebo (no or minimal disability). These findings were confirmed in the ECASS III trial (see paragraph below), after in the meantime two European studies and an additional USA study had failed to provide the respective evidence in settings essentially not compliant with the current EU product information. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

45 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. The ECASS III trial was a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted in patients with acute stroke in a time-window of 3 to 4.5 hours in Europe. Treatment administration in the ECASS III study was in line with the European SmPC for Actilyse in its stroke indication, except the upper end of the time of treatment window i.e. 4.5 hours. The primary end point was disability at 90 days, dichotomized for favourable (modified Rankin scale [mRS] 0 to 1) or unfavourable (mRS 2 to 6) outcome. A total of 821 patients (418 alteplase/403 placebo) were randomized. More patients achieved favourable outcome with alteplase (52.4%) vs. placebo (45.2%; odds ratio [OR] 1.34; 95% CI ; P=0.038). The incidence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher with alteplase vs. placebo (27.0% vs 17.6%, p=0.0012; Mortality was low and not significantly different between alteplase (7.7%) and placebo (8.4%; P=0.681). Subgroup results of ECASS III confirm that a longer OTT is associated with an increasing risk for mortality and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. The results of ECASS III show a positive net-clinical benefit for ACTILYSE in the 3 to 4.5 hour time window, while pooled data demonstrate that the net-clinical benefit is no longer favourable for alteplase in the time window beyond 4.5 hours. The safety and efficacy of ACTILYSE for acute ischaemic stroke treatment up to 4.5 hours time stroke onset time to start of treatment (OTT) has been assessed by an ongoing registry (SITS-ISTR: The Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke registry). In this observational study safety outcome data of treated patients in the 0 to 3 hour time window were compared with data from patients treated between 3 to 4.5 hours after onset of AIS. The incidence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (according to the SITS-MOST definition) was found to be higher in the 3 to 4.5 hour time window (2.2%) as compared with the up to 3 hour time window (1.7%). Mortality rates at 3 months were similar comparing the 3 to 4.5 hour time window (12.0%) with the 0 to 3.0 hours time window (12.3%) with an unadjusted OR 0.97 (95% CI: , p=0.70) and an adjusted OR 1.26 (95% CI: , p= The SITS observational data support clinical trial evidence of stroke onset time to start of treatment (OTT) as an important predictor of outcome following acute stroke treatment with alteplase. 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties Alteplase is cleared rapidly from the circulating blood and metabolised mainly by the liver (plasma clearance ml/min.). The relevant plasma half-life t1/2 alpha is 4-5 minutes. This means that after 20 minutes less than 10 % of the initial value is present in the plasma. For the residual amount remaining in a deep compartment, a beta-half-life of about 40 minutes was measured. 5.3 Preclinical safety data In subchronic toxicity studies in rats and marmosets no unexpected undesirable effects were found. No indications of a mutagenic potential were found in mutagenic tests. In pregnant animals no teratogenic effects were observed after intravenous infusion of pharmacologically effective doses. In rabbits embryotoxicity (embryolethality, growth retardation) was induced by more than 3 mg/kg/day. No effects on peri-postnatal development or on fertility parameters were observed in rats with doses up to 10 mg/kg/day. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

46 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS 6.1 List of excipients Powder for solution: Arginine Phosphoric acid, dilute Polysorbate 80 Solvent: Water for injections The pH of the reconstituted solution is 7.3 ± Incompatibilities The reconstituted solution may be diluted with sterile sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9 %) solution for injection up to a minimal concentration of 0.2 mg alteplase per ml. Further dilution, the use of water for injections for dilution or in general the use of carbohydrate infusion solutions, e.g. dextrose, is not recommended due to increasing formation of turbidity of the reconstituted solution. Actilyse should not be mixed with other medicinal products neither in the same infusion vial nor the same catheter (not even with heparin). 6.3 Shelf life 10 mg, 20 mg and 50 mg pack sizes: 3 years After reconstitution, an immediate use is recommended. However, the in-use stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at 2 °C – 8 °C and for 8 hours at 25 °C 6.4 Special precautions for storage Store in the original package in order to protect from light. For 10 mg, 20 mg and 50 mg pack sizes: Do not store above 25 °C. For storage conditions of the reconstituted medicinal product, see section 6.3. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

47 This is the SPC as approved for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK. For product use, please check the local SPC of the country you live in. 6.5 Nature and contents of container Powder for solution: 10 ml, 20 ml or 50 ml sterilised glass vials, sealed with sterile siliconised grey butyl-type stoppers with aluminium/plastic flip-off caps. Solvent: For the 10 mg, 20 mg and 50 mg pack sizes, the water for injections is filled into either 10 ml, 20 ml or 50 ml vials, depending on the size of the powder vials. The water for injections vials are sealed with rubber stoppers and aluminium/plastic flip-off caps. Transfer cannulas (included with pack sizes of 20 mg and 50 mg only) Pack sizes: 10 mg: 1 vial with 467 mg powder for solution for injection and infusion 1 vial with 10 ml of water for injections 20 mg: 1 vial with 933 mg powder for solution for injection and infusion 1 vial with 20 ml of water for injections 1 transfer cannula 50 mg: 1 vial with 2333 mg powder for solution for injection and infusion 1 vial with 50 ml of water for injections 1 transfer cannula Not all pack sizes may be marketed. 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling For reconstitution to a final concentration of 1 mg altpelase per ml the full volume of solvent provided should be transferred to the vial containing the Actilyse powder. To this purpose a transfer cannula is included with the 20 mg and 50 mg pack sizes, which is to be used. For the 10 mg pack sizes a syringe should be used. For reconstitution to a final concentration of 2 mg alteplase per ml only half of the solvent provided should be used. In these cases always a syringe should be used to transfer the required amount of solvent to the vial containing the Actilyse powder. A table giving the volumes of solvent required for reconstitution to the final concentrations for each pack size is provided in section 4.2. When reconstituting the product from the respective amount of powder and solvent, the mixture should only be agitated gently until complete dissolution. Any vigorous agitation should be avoided to prevent foam formation. The reconstituted preparation is a clear and colourless to pale yellow solution. Prior to administration it should be inspected visually for particles and colour. The reconstituted solution is for single use only. Any unused solution should be discarded. 7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Binger Str. 173, D Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

48 Impressum Published by Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH Realisation infill healthcare communication Supported by Professors Peter Schellinger & Patrick Goldstein


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