“it is the duty of the physician to explain to the patient, or to his friends, that the condition is past relief, that medicines and electricity will do no good, and that there is no possible hope of cure” William Osler
Evidence that stroke units save lives and reduce likelihood of disability Reduced mortality (14%) Reduced death or institutionalisation (18%) Reduced death or dependency (18%) What has changed since Oslers time? Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration (2006) Stroke unit
The important components of a stroke unit A skilled team including Doctors Nurses Physiotherapists Occupational Therapists Speech and Language Therapists Psychologists Social Workers Direct admission from emergency department Monitoring facilities for Heart Rate Blood Pressure Oxygen Breathing Rate Multidisciplinary Working Active involvement of patients and carers in care A dedicated ward with:
Ease of access to imaging. Every hospital treating stroke now has a CT scanner. 95% of patients scanned, 65% within 24 hours Quality of imaging – Differentiating between haemorrhage and infarction – Identifying where the damage is and how big it is – Identifying when acute treatments to rescue brain might work – Finding out why the stroke happened Brain scanning What has changed since Oslers time?
Brain scan Nationally Brain scan after stroke98% within 3 hours of stroke27% within 24 hours of stroke70% within 3 hours of admission39% within 24 hours of admission84% National Sentinel Stroke Audit 2010
Treating people early after a stroke improves outcome – Direct admission to an acute stroke unit – Treatment with thrombolysis can dramatically improve outcome Immediate treatment What has changed since Oslers time?
Risk of death, dependency and good functional outcome in randomized trials of rt-PA given within 3 hours of acute ischaemic stroke Differences/1000: 141 extra alive and independent (P<0.01) 130 fewer dependent survivors (P<0.01) 12 fewer deaths (NS) Cochrane Library 2003 (3 trials, n=869)
Glenn D. Graham 2002 Observational studies: haemorrhage rates
Thrombolysis 5% of patients received altepase in 2010 Sentinel Audit (increased from 1.8% in 2008) 14% of patients satisfied the 3 criteria for appropriateness of thrombolysis (presented within 3 hours, 80 yrs or under, infarction) Still many areas of the country where hyperacute stroke care not adequately provided
Duration of rehabilitation Research evidence to show a link between intensity of therapy after stroke and outcome In UK majority of rehabilitation resources concentrated in hospitals Length of hospital stay falling after stroke (reduced from mean of 35 days to 20 days over last 10 years) Patients frequently complain that they sit in hospital doing nothing for long periods of time
Appropriateness of 45 minutes of therapy NUMBER OF WEEKDAYS 45 MIN WAS APPROPRIATE (i.e. patients with impairment and known days) National Median (IQR) in days Physiotherapy2 (0-7) Occupational Therapy2 (0-6) Speech & Language Therapy1 (0-3) National Sentinel Stroke Audit 2010
Amount of therapy received Key Message Therapy time should be spent delivering direct patient care and administrative work should be kept to a minimum PHYSIOTHERAPY – provided on applicable daysNational 45 min and above 32% Less than 20 min33% OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY – provided on applicable daysNational 45 min and above 31% Less than 20 min42% SPEECH & LANGUAGE THERAPY – provided on applicable days National 45 min and above 18% Less than 20 min64% National Sentinel Stroke Audit 2010
How deliver increased intensity? Different patterns of working e.g. Cutting down on bureaucracy Less one to one therapy and more group treatment Using non specialist therapists to provide cover Focussing treatment just on patients likely to benefit e.g. Stopping treatment earlier More therapists
Delays stroke to admission 94% of patients were admitted within 24 hours of stroke 56% of patients were admitted within 3 hours of stroke For 6354 patients for whom both times is known in hours
Inpatient Strokes 5% of patients were already in hospital at time of stroke Performance on several of the 9 key indicators is worse for patients who have a stroke while an inpatient Key IndicatorsAlready an Inpatient Admitted after stroke 90% of stay in SU51%72% Screened for swallowing disorders within 24 hrs of admission72%83% Brain scan within 24 hrs of stroke79%70% Aspirin within 48 hrs of stroke92%93% PT assessment within 72 hours of admission85%92% OT assessment within 4 working days of admission69%84% Weighed during admission91%85% Mood assessed by discharge81%80% Rehab goals agreed by MDT66%79%
Location to which patient was initially admitted National Admissions / Medical Assessment Unit / Clinical Decisions Unit 57% Coronary care unit 1% Intensive Care Unit / High Dependency Unit1% Acute / Combined Stroke Unit 36% Other Ward 4% Key Message All patients should be directly admitted to a stroke unit equipped to manage acute stroke patients
Rehabilitation goals STANDARD National Written evidence that rehabilitation goals agreed by multidisciplinary team within 5 days of admission 78 Written evidence that rehabilitation goals agreed by multidisciplinary team by discharge 94 Patient was receiving nutrition within 72 hours of admission (Domain 4) 95 Nutrition
Continence 20% of patients had a urinary catheter in the first week of admission In 10% of these cases no clear rationale for the insertion is documented Only 63% of incontinent patients have a plan to promote urinary continence (Domain 4) Key Message All patients with continence should have a documented plan with evidence that it has been implemented in their case notes
Planning for discharge STANDARD NationalMy site Of applicable patients Follow up appointment with a member of stroke team at approximately 6 weeks post discharge (Domain 5) 74% Discharge organised involving use of an early supported discharge scheme 36% Rehabilitation planned before discharge 83% Key Message Stroke specialist early supported discharge teams should be made available in all districts
Pre-admission 81% of patients admitted with stroke have a history of known vascular risk factors Only 27% of patients who had atrial fibrillation prior to stroke were taking warfarin on admission Key Message All patients with ischaemic stroke in AF should be considered for anticoagulation and a clear reason documented where a decision is made not to treat
Anti-thrombotic Medication 89% of patients were prescribed any antithrombotic / antiplatelet at discharge 93% of patients were prescribed aspirin within 48 hours of stroke (Key Indicator/Domain 6) 39% of patients in whom AF has been identified as a co- mordidity were on warfarin by discharge or planned to start it (Target of 60% set by DH in England as part of Accelerated Stroke Improvement metrics to be achieved by April 2011) At discharge
Lipid regulating agents 81% of patients prescribed any lipid lowering agent 80% of these patients were prescribed statins Anti-hypertensive Medication 68% of all stroke patients were prescribed blood pressure lowering medication 84% of patients in whom hypertension was a co-morbidity were discharged with antihypertensive medication These rates have reduced since 2008
Prophets of doom predictions Not possible to implement major system reorganisation in London for a condition as complex as stroke Staffing requirements unachievable – Recruitment – where will staff come from? – Training – how will staff develop the necessary skills? – Leadership – who can provide the necessary leadership? – There is a risk that the available workforce will be consumed by early implementers, leaving later implementers unable to recruit to posts.
Prophets of doom predictions Patients will not accept being taken to a hospital that is not local to them Not possible to transport people within 30 minutes to a HASU Repatriation will fail and HASUs will quickly become full Trusts will fight to the bitter end to retain services e.g. Judicial review Even if get acute services working it will fail because impossible to change community services Unsustainable
London stroke care: How is it working? In the latest round of the National Sentinel Audit of stroke care in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 5 of the 6 top performing hospitals were in London. All of the HASUs were in the top quartile of performance London Scores National Scores
40 Performance data shows that London is performing better than all other SHAs in England Thrombolysis rates have increased since implementation began to a rate higher than that reported for any large city elsewhere in the world % of patients spending 90% of their time on a dedicated stroke unit % of TIA patients’ treatment initiated within 24 hours 12% 10% 3.5% Feb – Jul 2009Feb – Jul 2010AIM
41 Efficiency gains are also beginning to be seen Average length of stayHASU destination on discharge The average length of stay has fallen from approximately 15 days in 2009/10 to approximately 11.5 days in 20010/11 YTD This represents a potential saving of approximately [DN - insert figure] Approximately 35% of patients are discharged home from a HASU. The estimate at the beginning of the project was 20%.
London Stroke Care: How is it working? No significant problems with repatriation to SUs. Good exchange of patient information. Significantly improved quality of care in SUs Evidence of constructive collaboration between hospitals – SU Consultants joining HASU rotas and participating in post-take rounds and educational meetings Very positive anecdotal patient feedback
Workforce initiatives 1 month intensive training for consultants on HASU rota 6 month fast track training post CCST E learning programme in development Simulation centre courses funded and being developed – Senior doctors and nurses – Band 5 nurses and junior doctors
Evaluation Collecting data to prove the model is worth it – SINAP – Additional London data items – Patient and carer perception – Health economics: funded through SHA – SDO funding to evaluate process of change (PI Naomi Fulop) – SHA funding health economic evaluation
Areas where issues remain Acute stroke patients presenting at non HASU A&E departments – Too many – Some difficulties transferring to HASU – Concerns by some SUs that inappropriate to transfer to HASU and not in patients interest to move Out of London patients being brought by ambulance to non HASU A&E departments
Areas where issues remain Community services in many areas still insufficient – Early supported discharge – Longer term rehabilitation – Vocational rehabilitation Commissioning guidance for rehabilitation and longer term care
Areas where issues remain Outcomes framework – Need to collect real outcome data that is robust and interpretable by the public – Public data to be displayed by London Health Observatory
What does the future hold? Can the enhanced tariff be sustained? How will Clinical Commissioning affect the London stroke model? How will Clinical Commissioning affect similar projects elsewhere in England – concerns expressed by Kings Fund? Will the Secretary of State seek to open up the market for stroke care in London?