Presentation on theme: "Stroke Workshop Case Scenario. Stroke Workshop Case Scenario 65 year old female with a history of DM and HTN develops acute onset left face droop, left."— Presentation transcript:
Stroke Workshop Case Scenario 65 year old female with a history of DM and HTN develops acute onset left face droop, left arm and leg weakness. 118 is called and arrives within 15 minutes. Patient has a BP 200/110. What interventions should be provided in the field? Antihypertensive? Aspirin? Where should the patient be transported? Closest hospital?
Stroke Workshop Field Management in Stroke Cardiac monitor, O2 Blood sugar Reassurance / no pharmacologic intervention for BP Time of onset documented; medications; physical exam focusing on speech, facial droop, drift Rapid transport with notification of receiving hospital
Stroke Workshop Case Scenario Patient arrives in the ED with unchanged blood pressure, unchanged neurologic exam. What are the key components of history? What are the key components of the physical exam? What laboratory tests should be ordered? Pharmacologic interventions?
Stroke Workshop Key Components of the History Time of onset Head trauma, previous stroke Known AVM or aneurysm Major surgery within 14 days Seizure Medications: use of anticoagulants Symptoms suggestive of MI / pericarditis Symptoms suggestive of hemorrhage Severe headache Neck stiffness / Pain Nausea / vomiting
Stroke Workshop Key Components to the Physical ABC’S Vital signs (BP both arms; presence of fever) LOC (when depressed, consider other diagnoses) Trauma exam Neck exam Cardiopulmonary exam
Stroke Workshop Key Components of the Neuro Exam
Stroke Workshop Neurologic exam Glasgow coma scaleGlasgow coma scale NIHSS: 15 Item measure: 42 PointsNIHSS: 15 Item measure: 42 Points < 4 Not a candidate for thrombolytics > 22 Increased risk for hemorrhage
Stroke Workshop NIH Stroke Scale Level of consciousness Orientation (month and age) Follow commands Best gaze Visual fields Facial palsy Motor arm Motor leg Limb ataxia Sensory Best language Dysarthria Extinction and inattention (neglect)
Stroke Workshop What Laboratory Tests Should be Ordered?
Stroke Workshop What Laboratory Tests Should be Ordered? Glucose CBC and platelets Electrolytes PT, PTT ECG CXR Noncontrast head CT
Stroke Workshop Blood Pressure Management in Ischemic Stroke Systolic 185 - 220, Diastolic 105 - 120; Do not treat for the first hour (consider benzodiazepines); if persists, IV Labetolol, 10 mg. Systolic > 220 mm Hg or diastolic 121 - 140; 2 readings 20 min apart: Start Labatolol 10 MG IV. Patients requiring more than 2 doses are not candidates for t-PA Diastolic > 140 mm Hg; 2 readings 5 minutes apart: Start Nitroprusside. Patient is not a candidate for t- PA
Stroke Workshop Case Scenario Patient has a NIHSS score of 8 ECG is normal sinus Glucose 140; Platelets 200 K PT / PTT are normal Head CT is read as “normal” What are the indications for t-PA?
Stroke Workshop Indications for t-PA Symptoms less than 3 hours from onset Symptoms not improving No evidence of hemorrhage on CT No recent head trauma, surgery, GI bleeding No use of anti-coagulants No known aneurysm, neoplasm Blood pressure controlled
Stroke Workshop Case Scenario A decision is made to give t-PA. How is t-PA administered How is suspected intracranial hemorrhage managed?
Stroke Workshop Administering t-PA.9 mg/kg in a 1:1 dilution Maximum dose 90 mg 10% initial bolus over 1-2 minutes; the rest infused over 60 minutes Monitor blood pressure Do not give heparin or aspirin!
Stroke Workshop Case Scenario The patient received t-PA and within one hour her strength was markedly improved. She was admitted to the stroke unit where she was monitored and began early rehabilitation She was discharged home one week later with minimal left sided weakness.