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What have we discussed about perspective? What is it? How do our personal experiences shape our view on events? A) while we live them? B) when we look.

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Presentation on theme: "What have we discussed about perspective? What is it? How do our personal experiences shape our view on events? A) while we live them? B) when we look."— Presentation transcript:

1 What have we discussed about perspective? What is it? How do our personal experiences shape our view on events? A) while we live them? B) when we look back at them? Magic word is …. PRESENTISM

2 Historical Perspective How can we better understand the people of the past? –Difference in values, beliefs, motivations –Avoid presentism –Consider historical context –Take on their (historical actors) perspective –Understand the diverse perspectives of the time (eg. Both sides)

3 Let’s practice one time Read: How Canada’s mighty have fallen What are your thoughts? Should we judge the actions of people in the past by today’s standards and values?

4 Some perspective on… Canada - U.S. Relations Friends by choice or necessity?


6  “Far more of the 9/11 terrorists came across from Canada than from Mexico.” (former U.S. Speaker Newt Gingrich, April 2005 – later retracted and apologized).  “We’ve got to remember that the people who first hit us on 9/11 entered this country through Canada.” (then U.S. Senator Conrad Burns, December 2005 – later said he ‘misspoke’).  “For most Americans, Canada is sort of like a case of latent arthritis. We really don’t think about it unless it acts up.” (1992) Pat Buchanan (former US Presidential candidate)

7 FRANÇOISE DUCROS (former communications director to Prime Minister Jean Chrétien)  “What a moron.” (about President Bush, 2002)  PM Chrétien: The President “is a friend of mine. He’s not a moron at all.” Ducros resigned shortly after. CAROLYN PARRISH (Liberal MP 1993-2006)  “Damn Americans. I hate the bastards.” (overheard after invasion of Iraq, 2003)  “We are not going to join a coalition of the idiots.” (2004)

8 Do we have the same values ? Same sex marriage Guns Capital punishment Public provision of health care Decriminalization of marijuana Levels of military spending

9 And yet… best friends? “The United States is our best friend and largest trading partner” – 2006 Throne Speech of Canada’s new Conservative government Why? What makes the USA our “BFF”?

10 Shared Geography 9,000 km long border – and shared commitment to cross-border law enforcement and intelligence cooperation Shared environment –Airsheds (and air pollution) –Watersheds (Great Lakes, rivers, ocean) –Migratory species

11 Shared values and history WW1, WW2, Korea, Cold War & Afghanistan Mutual security interests Allies in UN, NATO, WTO… Shared values: democracy, free markets, rule of law (all equally subject), civil liberties

12 Shared Institutions 300+ treaties at all levels of government and private sector –International Joint Commission –NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command) and other long-standing defense ties Mega-projects –i.e. St Lawrence Seaway and Pipelines

13 Economic interdependence $$$ The United States takes 73% of our exports 63% of our imports come from the USA In 2009, exports accounted for approximately 30% of Canada's GDP. Statistics Canada, 2009 BUT …

14 Lets look at the history of Canada - US trade Read ‘The Business of Free Trade’ pg. 373 – 378 Free Trade Agreement: Divisive issue in 1988 election Mulroney & Conservatives- FOR (43% of vote) Liberals & NDP- AGAINST (57% of vote) FTA came into force Jan 1 st, 1989 January 1 st 1994, Mexico joins, NAFTA created US vs. CAN Dollar

15 NAFTA… challenges Softwood lumber (2001-2006) –Largest trade dispute in the world –Huge issue in Canada but barely noticed in U.S. –Canadian resentment at U.S. not abiding by NAFTA dispute resolution panels – Restrictions on Canadian cattle exports after discovery of BSE

16 NAFTA… successes One in five Canadian jobs is linked to international trade Trade with the United States is up 80 percent, and the amount of trade with Mexico has doubled. Has had a positive impact on trade in automotive, agriculture and communications industries

17 Perspective again… How would these different people feel about NAFTA? –Brian Mulroney –Canadian wheat farmer –American industrial CEO –Mexican plant worker –Ontario factory worker

18 Always Allies? Foreign Policy Disagreements…

19 Persian Gulf War, Episode 1 August 2, 1990 – February 28, 1991, commonly referred to as the Gulf War UN authorized coalition, AKA ‘Operation Desert Storm’ US $60 billion war, $36 paid by Saudi Arabia Started with an Air Attack on January 17 th, 1991. Ground attack followed on 23 rd February Canada condemns Iraq’s invasion, Mulroney sends several ships, aircraft, and a mobile field hospital Canada is in!!

20 Persian Gulf War, Episode 2 “After all, this is a guy that tried to kill my dad at one time.” (Sept 26, 2002) “We found the weapons of mass destruction. We found biological laboratories. And we'll find more weapons as time goes on. But for those who say we haven't found the banned manufacturing devices or banned weapons, they're wrong, we found them”. (May 29, 2003) “I wasn't happy when we found out there wasn't weapons of mass destruction in Iraq”. (Oct 8, 2004)

21 The Controversy After 1991 Gulf war Saddam promised to destroy all WMD 2003 Bush and Blair declare that Iraq has WMD UN says ‘wait, we’ll inspect’. No WMD found February, 2003 March 19 th, 2003 US attacks Canada openly opposes the invasion Canada is out!!

22 So think again… Which statement seems most accurate to you? Think about perspective as you justify your point of view. “Mr. King, my old friend. Your course and mine have run so closely and affectionately during these many long years that […] I have always felt at home in Canada and you, I think, have always felt at home in the United States.” FD Roosevelt, 1943 “Geography has made us neighbours. History has made us friends. Economics has made us partners. And necessity has made us allies.” Kennedy, 1962 “Living next to you is in some ways like sleeping with an ele- phant. No matter how friendly or temperate the beast, one is affected by every twitch and grunt.” Trudeau, 1969

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