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21st Century American Foreign Policy

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Presentation on theme: "21st Century American Foreign Policy"— Presentation transcript:

1 21st Century American Foreign Policy
Dr. Bruce W. Jentleson

2 Unit 5 The Americas: Relations with Latin America and Canada
5A: Historical Background 5B: US and Cuba 5C: US, Mexico and Canada 5D: Contemporary Overview Why is my #1 so small? Can you correct?

3 North America

4 5C: US, Mexico and Canada I. “North America”, NAFTA
II. Relations with Mexico III. Relations with Canada

5 I. “North America”, NAFTA
North America as a sub-region w/in Western Hemisphere NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) US debate on approval, 1993 Freer trade area, 444 million people, producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services Job losses, environmental costs Approved by Congress House of Representatives: , Senate 61-38, bipartisan Mexico and Canada each had their own pro-con debates

6 Impact? Increased trade: e.g., US exports to Mexico tripled
One study: wage gains in all three countries Another study: major US job losses

7 II. US Relations with Mexico
History (5A): war, US intervention, other tensions, some cooperation “The two countries share a 2000 mile border, and relations between the two have a direct impact on the lives and livelihoods of millions of Americans – whether the issue is trade and economic reform, homeland security, drug control, migration or the environment.” US State Department website

8 Political controversies for close to 30 years
Immigration More than 32 million U.S. residents are of Mexican origin; equals about 60% of all Latinos in US and 10% total US population: legal and illegal immigrants Political controversies for close to 30 years Local level abuses: Arizona sheriff “show me your papers”, racial profiling

9 DREAM Act: path to legal residency especially for youth and students
Obama policy in his first term: combination of stricter enforcement and more opportunity DREAM Act: path to legal residency especially for youth and students 2012 Presidential election Romney and other Republican candidates hard-line, bashing Barack Obama wins over 70% Hispanic vote Hispanics a growing part of the American electorate: 6% (2000) to 10% (2012) Immigration reform bill currently in Congress Passed Senate, bipartisan support Blocked in House of Representatives (largely Republican opposition)

10 Drugs (more on overall “drug wars” in next lecture 5D)
By mid-2000s over 90% of cocaine coming into US transiting through Mexico Drug cartels armed like paramilitaries almost 50,000 people killed Cross-border effects into US as well Merida Initiative, joint program Some success: arrests increased, some cartels broken up, tons seized But still violence raged and extensive corruption Guns coming from US

11 Counter-terrorism, border security Diplomatic issues
Allies Day to day working together Differences over Cuba Opposition to the 2003 Iraq war

12 Mexican politics President Enrique Peña Nieto, 2012 : six year term, one term only Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI, Partido Revolucionario, Institucional) PRI in power for over 70 years, until 2000 Party, National Action Party (PAN, Partido Acción Nacional)

13 III. Relations with Canada
5500 mile border, longest in world #1 US trade partner #1 energy supplier (all sources) Over 300,000 people daily cross-border traffic History here too: War of 1812, border treaties Acid rain issue Opposed 2003 Iraq war Supported Gulf War and Afghanistan war

14 For most part very close and friendly relations
Canada member of NATO NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command) Bilateral free trade agreement before trilateral NAFTA Counter-terrorism cooperation

15 Canadian foreign policy, a global leader on multilateralism
UN peacekeeping: e.g., General Romeo Dallaire warnings about the coming genocide in Rwanda “Responsibility to Protect” Originator of the G-20

16 Citations Map of North America: Public Domain, US government.

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