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Presentation on theme: "SATELLITES Orbits Sensors LANDSAT NOAA SPOT RADARSAT TERRA AQUA."— Presentation transcript:


2 6.3 ccrs Geostationary orbitSun-synchronous orbit

3 6.3 ccrs SWATH Ascending and descending node Ascending node Descending node

4 Satellite Orbits 6.3 Apogee Perigee Inclination Period point farthest from the earth time to complete one orbit at 36,000 km the period equal the earth’s rotation (geostationary) angle that the satellite track forms with respect to the equator at the ascending node (e.g. 90 o means polar orbit) point closest to the earth

5 Sun-synchronous orbit altitude of about 800 km 6.3 Orbit inclination carries the satellite track westward at a rate that compensates for the change in local solar time as the satellite moves north to south (descending node always on sunlit side). All scenes are viewed at the same local solar time. The illumination varies with seasons because of the tilt of the Earth. Sensors that measure solar radiation reflected by the Earth always do so during the descending node. Thermal and radar satellites work in both ascending and descending node.

6 Sensor types (1)across-track scanners (whiskbroom) advantage: one sensor each band, easy calibration disadvantage: moving mirror prone to failure (2) along-track scanners (pushbroom) advantage: no moving parts within a system disadvantage: large number of sensors, difficult to calibrate (3) Image frame scanners, i.e., area arrays Two types: (i) linear array, (ii) linear array with dispersing elements for multiple channels

7 LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (Landsat 1-5) 6.4 Return Beam Vidicon (Landsat 1,2 and 3) Television-like images Failed early in both Landsat 1 and 2 and had some technical problems in Landsat 3 Because of failures of RBV, the MSS became the primary sensor of Landsat 1-3. Swath of 185 km Resolution of about 79 x 57 m (~US football field) Band 1: 0.5-0.6  m (green) Band 2: 0.6-0.7  m (red) Band 3: 0.7-0.8  m (near-infrared) Band 4: 0.8-1.1  m (near-infrared) Band 5 (Landsat 3 only): 10.4-12.6  m with 234x234 m 2

8 Band Wavelength (  m) 1 0.45-0.52 Blue-Green LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: Soil/vegetation discrimination, distinction between coniferous and deciduous forests; Bathymetry/coastal mapping; Cultural/urban feature identification Penetration of clear water 6.6 CCRS

9 Band Wavelength (  m) LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: 2 0.52-0.60 Green Green vegetation mapping (measures reflectance peak); Reflectance from turbid water Cultural/urban feature identification 6.6 CCRS

10 Band Wavelength (  m) LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: 3 0.63-0.69 Red Vegetated vs. non-vegetated and plant species discrimination (plant chlorophyll absorption); Cultural/urban feature identification 6.6 CCRS

11 Band Wavelength (  m) LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: 4 0.76-0.90 Near-Infrared Identification of plant/vegetation types, health, and biomass content; Water body delineation; Soil moisture 6.6 CCRS

12 Band Wavelength (  m) LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: 5 1.55-1.75 Short Wave Infrared Sensitive to moisture in soil and vegetation; Discriminating snow and cloud-covered areas; Penetration of thin clouds 6.6 CCRS

13 Band Wavelength (  m) LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: 6 10.4-12.5 Thermal Infrared Vegetation stress and soil moisture discrimination related to thermal radiation; Thermal mapping (urban, water) Relative brightness temperature 6.6 CCRS

14 Band Wavelength (  m) LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER Characteristics: 7 2.08-2.35 Short Wave Infrared Discrimination of mineral and rock types; Sensitive to vegetation moisture content; Hydroxyl ion absorption 6.6 CCRS

15 ENHANCED THEMATIC MAPPER LANDSAT 6 LANDSAT 6 failed shortly after launch 6.7 ENHANCED THEMATIC MAPPER+ LANDSAT 7 Launched: April 15, 1999 Better resolution for thermal channel: 60 m A new 15-m panchromatic channel Better calibration and data transmission. A new 15-m panchromatic channel

16 NOAA Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer 16.8 NOAA 1: Mission Date: December 11, 1970 to August 19, 1971 NOAA 16: Mission Date: September 21, 2000 to present Resolution: 1.1 km at Nadir Swath 2400 km (twice daily) Bands 0.58-0.68  m (visible) 0.725-1.10  m(near IR) 3.55-3.93  m (thermal) 0.3-11.3  m (thermal) 11.5-12.4  m (thermal) 10-bit data originally for meteorological studies NOAA-14 12/30/1994 - Present NOAA-15 05/13/1998 - Present NOAA-16 09/21/2000 - Present

17 HIRS/2 High Resolution Infrared Radiation ( Temperature ) Sounder Resolution17.4 km Swath 2240 km 20 Infrared Bands Other sensors on board NOAA 14 MSU Microwave Sounder Unit Resolution109.3 km Swath2348 km 4 Bands SARSAT Search And Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking Bands: 121.5, 243 & 406 MHz CCRS

18 SPOT -S ystème P our l’ O bservation de la T erre The Spot program was developed by the French Space Agency CNES, in cooperation with Belgium and Sweden. Altitude: 822 km Inclination: 98 degrees (i.e. near-polar orbit) Revolutions per day: 14 + 5/26 Period: 101 minutes Westward drift between successive ground tracks: 2823 km Cycle duration: 26 days Orbital revolutions per cycle: 369 Crosses the equator at 10:30 am Spot Image, created in 1982, is the first commercial company established to distribute geographic information derived from Earth Observation Satellites on a worldwide basis. SPOT 1 was launched February 21, 1986 SPOT 4 was launched March 24, 1998

19 6.8 SPOT 4 2 HRVIR Haute Resolution Visible Infrarouge (HIGH RESOLUTION VISIBLE INFRARED) Multispectral Panchromatic Resolution 20 m 10 m Swath 60 km 60 km Band (  m) 0.50-0.59 0.61-0.68 0.61-0.68 0.79-0.89 1.58-1.75 VMI Vegetation Monitoring Instrument Resolution 1 km Swath 2000 km Bands: (  m) 0.43-0.47 0.50-0.59 0.61-0.68 0.79-0.89 1.58-1.75 Direction of flight

20 The main differences between Landsat and SPOT LandsatSPOT Sensorwhiskbroompushbroom Motion controlFixed nadir viewpointable Spatial Resolution 30 m (TM)20 m (HRV) 10 m (HRV): SPOT5 Number of bands7 (TM) 8 (ETM) 4 Time SeriesSince 1972Since 1986

21 The main differences between AVHRR and VGT AVHRRVGT Sensorwhiskbroompushbroom Spatial Resolution1.1 km at nadir increasing with view zenith angle (VZA) Fixed at 1.1 km at all view angle (increase slightly with VZA) Number of optical bands 24 Number of thermal bands 30 Time seriesSince 1970Since 1998

22 SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) Similar to AVHRR, but was designed for vegetation. CCD linear array Same bands as HRVIR SAWTH of 2,200 km Resolution of 1 km at nadir (regional mode) 6.8 SPOT 5 2.5 m Panchromatic, 10 m HRVIR Launched 4 May 2002

23 This image of Monterey Bay was created by merging two panchromatic and two multi-spectral SPOT images together. Sharpening and natural colours were created as well. The ocean area was rendered using a bathymetric elevation model with draped colours. The ocean waves, boat wakes, and other reflections were added by algebraically merging texture maps of the panchromatic SPOT images with the draped colour elevation file. Monterey Bay is equivalent to the Grand Canyon under sea in terms of area and depth. Hammon, Jensen, Wallen

24 Active microwave sensors 1.Bands: Ka (0.75-1.1 cm), K (1.1-1.67 cm), Ku (1.67-2.4 cm), X (2.4-3.75 cm), C (3.75-7.5 cm), S (7,2-15 cm), L (15-30 cm), P (30-100 cm) 2. Polarization: HH, HV, VH, VV Like polarized, HH, VV Corss polarized: HV, VH Source Magnetic Component Electric Component H V

25 RADARSAT 7.10 CCRS CSA The RADARSAT project, led by the Canadian Space Agency, builds on the history of achievements in remote sensing and space technologies by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), part of Natural Resources Canada. C-BAND Swath: 35 - 500 km Resolution:10-100 m Sun-synchronous Equator: 06:00 am Radarsat International Inc. Richmond British Columbia Inclination: 98.6 o Period: 100.7 min.

26 RADARSAT 2 Scheduled for launch in Early 2004 High Resolution 3 x 3 m Multi Polarization horizontal (HH), vertical (VV) and cross (HV & VH)

27 Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) Japan (launched on August 17, 1996) 8 Sensors Altitude: 830 km Operational for 8 months: October 30, 1996 to June 30, 1997 POLDER sensor: Multiangle view of 6x7 km 2 of the whole globe. Goal is to find BRDF signature of different cover types for classification and biophysical parameters retrieval. NEW POLDER on board ADEOS II (Launched December 2002, Lost October 2003 ) POLDER First Images Conventional (right) Polarized (left)

28 NASA EOS Terra (was AM-1) mission Launched 18 December Five sensors: 1.Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, USA) 2.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, Japan) 3.Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES, USA) 4.Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR, USA) 5.Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT, Canada)

29 EOS TERRA (was AM-1) NASA MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Spectral range 0.4-14.4 µm Spectral coverage ± 55°, 2330 km swath Spatial resolution: 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands), 1000 m (29 bands) at nadir 20.5 Launch: December 1999 Sun-synchronous orbit, 10:30 a.m. descending node 5 sensors

30 Global Mosaic of MODIS

31 MOPITT Resolution: 22 km Swath: 640 km Measuring methane and Carbon monoxide

32 ASTER Resolution: 15-90 m Bands: 14 Swath: 60 km Measuring: Temperature Emissivity Reflectance Elevation

33 MISR Resolution: 275 m Bands: 4 Swath: 360 km Angles: 9 Measuring: Aerosols Clouds (amount, type, ht.) Vegetation Structure

34 CERES Resolution: 20 km Bands: 3 (SW, T, total solar energy) Measuring: Cloud amount Cloud temperature

35 AMSR/E- Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS MODIS-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AMSU-Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit AIRS- Atmospheric Infrared Sounder HSB- Humidity Sounder for Brazil CERES- Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System EOS AUQA (was PM-1), NASA Six Instruments onboard: May 4, 2002 2:55 a.m. PDT Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA

36 RADARSAT- Snow mapping of Ottawa Agricultural fields (A and B), the Ottawa International Airport (C), the Ottawa River (D) and the city of Ottawa (E). January 19, 1996

37 To investigate the operational use of VGT as a substitute for AVHRR for crop and forest fire monitoring. VESNA: VEGETATION/SPOT for Northern applications Co-Principal Investigators: Jing Chen and Josef Cihlar Canada Centre for Remote Sensing To extend and refine the methodology previously developed for processing AVHRR data to the VGT/SPOT system. To assess the advantages of VGT spectral bands in deriving biophysical parameters. To explore the usefulness of VGT/SPOT for vegetation carbon budget estimation in comparison with AVHRR. Main conclusion: VGT is much better than AVHRR


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