3IntroductionProposed NASA & French Space Agency (CNES) mission to make the first global survey of Earth's surface water.In February 2008, adopted the name SWOT, replacing the original name WatER HM.Artists concept of SWOT
4Glimpses of the Mission Launch: 2016Agency: NASA & CNESOrbit: Low Earth Orbit…max 2000km altitudeEstimated Cost: $450 millionAreas of Interest: Climate, Health & WaterInstruments: KaRIN, Ku-band nadir altimeter, microwave radiometerMission Life Time: 03 years
5Mission ObjectivesTo observe the fine details (closer spacing) of the ocean's surface topography, and measure how water bodies change over time.Spatial Resolutions: 10 km, at present the resolution is 300 km.Discharge measurement in large (50m-100m width) riversNorthern Alberta Lakes, Canada
6Remote Sensing Wide-swath altimetry technology Designed to acquire high-resolution elevations at spatial and temporal scalesActive Sensors are a laser florosensor and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
7Instruments Ka –or Ku-Band Radar………………….27.5-32GHz Ku-Band Altimeter (Kurz-unten Band) GHzMicrowave Radiometer (MWR)..Ka-Band radar is a new type named Ka-band Radar Interferometry (KaRIN). Wavelength, λ=0.86 cmA conceptual outline of the KaRIN instrument configuration
8Resolution 200 MHz bandwidth Cross-track ground resolutions Varying from about 10 m in the far swath to about 60 m in the near swathA resolution of about 2 m in the along track direction is derived by means of synthetic aperture processing.Orbit shall be an exact repeat orbit with a maximum repeat period of 22 days.
10…Parameter Values of Mission Orbit Height: 800 kmOne-Sided Swath: 50 kmNumber of Swaths: 2Range Resolution: 0.75 mAzimuth Resolution: 5 mRaw Data Rate: 504 Mbits/sData Volume/Orbit: 76 Gbytes
11…Parameter Values of Mission Orbit Height: 800 KmOrbit Type: 22-day repeat 78° inclinationSwath: 120 KmFrequency: Ka-BandWavelength: 0.86 cmHeight Precision: km resolutionSpatial Resolution: <100 m imagingInstrument: Interferometer
12Data Collection & Processing Instrument check (at least 3 months)Space-Time SamplingRepeating Period: 22-daysCalibration and Validation PhaseEnsure the required data volume and adequate spatial coverage (3-day sampling)Verified by an independent measurement or analysis during a post-launch validation periodSea surface heights (SSH) and terrestrial water heights over a 120 km wide swath with a +/-10 km gap at the nadir track
13…Data Collection & Processing In-situ cannot measure thisOver the deep oceans, provide SSH within each swath with a posting every 2 km x 2 km, and a precision not to exceed 0.5 cm when averaged over the area.Over land, download the raw data for ground processing and produce a water mask able to resolve 100-m rivers and 1-km2 lakes, wetlands, or reservoirs.Water level elevations with an accuracy of 10 cm and a slope accuracy of 1 cm/1 km.Cover at least 90% of the globe.Gaps are not to exceed 10% of Earth's surface.
14A flooded forest in the Amazon Expected BenefitsImproved water management in transboundary river basinsImproved prediction of carbon fluxes to and from wetlandsImproved flood and marine forecastsImproved identification and forecasts of inundation and malaria zonesImproved prediction of changes of sea level rise.A flooded forest in the Amazon
15Expected ApplicationGanges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin-the flood forecasting range of the lowermost riparian nation is limited due to unavailable rainfall from upstream nations.