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2)Do children’s adjustment problems transact over time with parent-teacher communication? Yes. When children showed more externalizing and internalizing.

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Presentation on theme: "2)Do children’s adjustment problems transact over time with parent-teacher communication? Yes. When children showed more externalizing and internalizing."— Presentation transcript:

1 2)Do children’s adjustment problems transact over time with parent-teacher communication? Yes. When children showed more externalizing and internalizing problems in January, parents initiated more communication with teachers by March (βs =.13, SE =.05, p ≤.01; see Figure 2). Teachers also initiated more communication with parents in response to children’s externalizing problems (see Figure 3). When parents and teachers initiated more communication, children showed increased adjustment problems by the end of the school year (βs = , SEs = , p ≤.01). Figure 3. Associations among Household Risks, Externalizing Problems, and Teacher-Initiated Communication 3)Does parent-teacher relationship quality moderate the associations between adjustment and communication? Yes. Parents initiated more communication in response to children’s adjustment problems when they shared a high (Bs = , p ≤.01) but not low (B = -.03, ns) quality relationship. Teachers also initiated more communication in response to children’s externalizing when they shared a high (Bs = , ps ≤ ) but not low (Bs = , ns) quality relationship. Household moves also contributed to parent- and teacher- initiated communication in the context of high (Bs = , ps ≤ ) but not low (Bs = , ns) relationship quality. Conclusions: In the context of economic risk, material hardship increased risks for adjustment problems. In response, parents increased their communication with their child’s teacher, particularly when they shared a higher quality relationship. Such communication did not, however, lessen children’s adjustment problems over time. Communication between parents and teachers may be insufficient to alter the stability in adjustment problems among low-income children if the exchanges are most often about school difficulties rather than children’s successes. Household Risk, Parent Involvement in Schooling, and Adjustment Problems in Middle Childhood S. R. Richards & W. L. G. Hoglund, University of Alberta Introduction: Research indicates that economic and material hardship and frequent moves can increase children’s risks for adjustment problems (Hoglund & Leadbeater, 2004; Milan et al., 2006), with moves and material hardship potentially mediating the effects of economic risk on adjustment (Gershofff et al., 2007). These household risks may also compromise the communication between parents and teachers that can work to support children’s adjustment (Hill et al., 2004). However, the benefits of parent- teacher communication may depend on parents’ relationship quality with teachers (Pomerantz et al., 2007). The current study tests moves and material hardship as mediators of the effects of economic risk on child adjustment and parent- teacher communication. In turn, the associations between adjustment and communication and differences in these relations by parent-teacher relationship quality is examined. See Figure 1. Figure 1. Hypothesized Associations among Household Risks, Adjustment Problems and Parent-Teacher Communication Research Questions: 1)Do household moves and material hardship mediate the effects of economic risks on initial levels of children’s adjustment problems and the communication between parents and teachers? 2)In turn, do children’s adjustment problems transact over time with parents’ communication with their children’s teachers? 3)Does the quality of parents’ relationships with teachers moderate the associations between adjustment and their communication? Participants & Procedure: 324 Children in Kindergarten to Grade 3 and their Parents 51% girls, mean age = 6.8 yrs (SD = 1.2 yrs) 88% mothers, mean age = 34.8 yrs (SD = 6.4 yrs) 50.5% Caucasian, 49.5% ethnic minority 31% lived in a single-parent household, 22% of mothers did not graduate high school, 40% of mothers were not employed, and 51% were below Statistics Canada’s (2009) low-income cut-off. 6-Month, Short-Term Longitudinal Study Data were collected on three occasions over one school term. Measures: Household Risk: parent-reported Economic Risk (low maternal education, maternal unemployment, single-parent household, low-income) Household Moves (frequency over the past 5 years) Material Hardship (difficulty paying bills) Child Adjustment Problems: teacher- and parent-rated (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) Externalizing (27 items; aggression, hyperactivity & inattention) Internalizing (26 items; anxiety & depression) Parent-Teacher Communication: parent-reported (CPPRG, 1991) Parent-Initiated (3 items; e.g., parent calls teacher) Teacher-Initiated (2 items; e.g., teacher writes to parent) Parent-Teacher Relationship Quality : parent-rated (CPPRG, 1991) Relationship Quality (4 items; e.g., enjoy talking to teacher) Data analysis: Auto-regressive, cross-lagged path models (Mplus 6.1; Muthén & Muthén, ) were used to assess the relations among household risks, adjustment problems, and parent-teacher communication. Multiple-group models tested whether these relations differed by parent-teacher relationship quality. Results: 1) Do moves and material hardship mediate the effects of economic risk on adjustment and communication? Partially. Frequent moves increased risks for internalizing problems at baseline (β =.12, SE =.06, p ≤.05). Material hardship increased risks for both externalizing and internalizing problems (βs =.23, SE =.06, p ≤.01) but boosted parent-initiated communication (β =.13, SE =.07, p ≤.05). Material hardship also mediated the effects of economic risk on baseline externalizing and internalizing problems (Indirect: βs =.10, SE =.03, p ≤.01) and parent-initiated communication (Indirect: β =.06, SE =.03, p ≤.05). See Figure 2. Figure 2. Associations among Household Risks, Externalizing Problems, and Parent-Initiated Communication This research was supported by a grant awarded to W. L. Hoglund from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). Economic Risk January 2010 Wave 1 March 2010 Wave 2 June 2010 Wave 3 Household Moves Material Hardship Adjustment Problems Parent– Teacher Communication Parent– Teacher Communication Parent– Teacher Communication Economic Risk Household Moves Material Hardship Child Externalizing R 2 =.11** Child Externalizing R 2 =.64** Child Externalizing R 2 =.71** Parent- Initiated Communication R 2 =.04 Parent- Initiated Communication R 2 =.56** Parent- Initiated Communication R 2 =.54**.15**.43**.15**.23**.13*.27**.11 t.13**.79**.14**.70**.75** January 2010 Wave 1 March 2010 Wave 2 June 2010 Wave 3 January 2010 Wave 1 March 2010 Wave 2 June 2010 Wave 3 Economic Risk Household Moves Material Hardship Child Externalizing R 2 =.11** Child Externalizing R 2 =.64** Child Externalizing R 2 =.71** Teacher- Initiated Communication R 2 =.05 Teacher- Initiated Communication R 2 =.51** Teacher- Initiated Communication R 2 =.52**. 15 **.43**. 15 **.23**.37**.11 t.79**.14**.67**.12*


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