2The Myth of the VikingsVictorian Britain responsible for the modern view of VikingsTerm “viking” virtually unknown until 19th centuryInterest in archeological sites, sagas translated, searched for Viking bloodlinesWrote ballads and illustrated children’s books; envisioned Vikings with long blond locks, decorated horned helmet, flashing sword, and elaborate cross-gartering.
3Who Were the Vikings? Commonly called the North men or Norsemen From ScandinaviaFarmers ,traders and colonistsThe word “viking “means one who lurks in a ”vik” or bay, in effect, a pirate.
4Who Were the Vikings?Norwegian and Danish Vikings settled Iceland, Greenland and Vineland.Norwegian and Danish Vikings raided then settled in the British Isles and NormandySwedish Vikingstraded and settled along the Dnieper and Volga rivers.
5What made them Successful? Europe was weakened after collapse of Charlemagne's empireNaval technologyDrekar, or dragon-headed longships, were stealthy troop- carries. They could cross open seas under sail and then switch to ores for lightning-fast hit-and-run attacks.They could achieve speeds for 14 knots, were highly maneuverable and could navigate shallow surf and river estuaries.The biggest longship yet found is 119 feet long with room for at least 72 oars and a crew of 100. It had a draft of only about three feet and had a huge 2, 175 square-foot sail.Took advantage of established trade routesThey were able to adapt their tactics from raiding to extortionFigureheads would be raised at stem and stern as a sign of war.
8When Thorald was about twenty years old he made up his mind to go on a Viking expedition, so his father gave him a longship. Evind and Obir joined him with another longship and a good number of men, and they spent the summer plundering. There was plenty of loot so each man got a good share. That's how things were for a number of years - every summer they'd go on Viking expeditions and every winter they would stay at home with their families and parents. Thorold brought his parents a lot of valuable things
9How do we know about the Vikings? Ruins of settlementsWritten accounts by monksmonastic chronicles such as the Anglo Saxon Chronicle, Frankish, and Irish Annals.Norse oral stories; “Saga”voyages to North AmericaFamily history of Erik the Red who founded Greenland, and his son Leif Erickson who discovered North AmericaOne of the earliest Icelandic Manuscripts in Old Norse, the Viking language.
10Rune Stone Legacy Sweden, ca 1010-1050 “Torgard erected this stone after Assur, her mother’s brother died.THE GOOD FARMER GULLE HAD FIVE SONS. AT FYRIS FELL ASMUND, THE UNFRIGHTENED WARRIOR, ASSUR DIED OUT EAST IN GREECE, HALVADNA WAS IN DUEL SLAIN, KARE DIED AT THE CAPE, DEAD IS BOE TOO.Uppland, Sweden.ESTRID HAD THESE STONES RAISED IN MEMORY OF OSTEN, HER HUSBAND WHO ATTACKED JERUSALEM AND MET HIS END IN GREECE.Uppland, Sweden ca 11th century. 20 stones along a casusway.JARLABANKI HAD THESE STONES RAISED IN MEMORY OF HIMSELF WHILE ALIVE, AND MADE THIS BRIDGE FOR HIS SPIRIT, AND HE ALONE OWNED ALL OF TABYR. MAY GOD HELP HIS SPIRIT.
11Death Rituals Burials are our main source of archeological information Great man or lady merited a fully fitted shipLesser men in boats, others had graves covered by stones arranged in outline of boatBuried with weapons, household utensils and foodS
12The Viking Warrior no professional standing army fought for and with your jarl, king.aim was glory in battleThe famous Berserker warriors fought in groups, and believed that Odin, their god of war, gave them both protection and superhuman powers so they had no need for armor – that was just the magic mushrooms talking!Berserker battles were intense and it’s said they bit on their shields and could ignore the pain of wounds.
13Berserkers...men asked Halfdan to attack Hardbeen and his champions man by man; and he not only promised to fight, but assured himself the victory with most confident words. When Hardbeen heard this, a demoniacal frenzy suddenly took him; he furiously bit and devoured the edges of his shield; he kept gulping down fiery coals; he snatched live embers in his mouth and let them pass down into his entrails; he rushed through the perils of crackling fires; and at last, when he had raved through every sort of madness, he turned his sword with raging hand against the hearts of six of his champions. It is doubtful whether this madness came from thirst for battle or natural ferocity.
14spear, sword, and battle-axe. Defensive WeaponsOffensive Weaponsspear, sword, and battle-axe.spear – iron blade on wooden shaft, 2-3 metersSwords – costly to make; double edged; up to 90 cm..shields - circular; up to one meter across; made of wood; may have been leather covered; coloured with simple patternsarmor – sagas mention mail armor but few examples foundMost padded themselves with reindeer hidehelmetsOne sword’s value was equal to 16 cowsSwords were heirlooms. They were given names and passed from father to son for generations. The loss of a sword was a catastrophe. Laxdæla saga (chapter 30) tells how Geirmundr planned to abandon his wife Þuríðr and their baby daughter in Iceland. Þuríðr boarded Geirmund's ship at night while he slept. She took his sword, Fótbítr (Leg Biter) and left behind their daughter. Þuríðr rowed away in her boat, but not before the baby's cries woke Geirmundr. He called across the water to Þuríðr, begging her to return with the sword.He told her, "Take your daughter and whatever wealth you want." She asked, "Do you mind the loss of your sword so much?" "I'd have to lose a great deal of money before I minded as much the loss of that sword." "Then you shall never have it, since you have treated me dishonorably."
15Viking ReligionNot much of a theology – gods were not all powerful or immortal.Norse view of the world was a practical one with little assurance for the futureImmorality of a sort came if you died fightingwarrior maids called Valkyries would carry you to Valhalla, Odin’s hall, to banquet on mead and pork until the end of the world.At the end of the world the gods will die in battle.Vikings converted to Christianity in the th century
16What were their goals? Raid and loot not the sole reason. Goal to gain new resourcesGold, silver, slavesThey drove people out and took their money and other valuables they had.targeted the churches and monasteriesmajor sources of wealthMonks did not fight back, mostlyBut then they changed: it became easier to extort money.then they chose to settle in the lands they once pillaged.An accurate depiction of what a Viking looked like.
17Vikings go West – Expansion and Settlement 960s Erik the Red exiled from Norway, moves to IcelandErik the Red exiled from Iceland for murderSails and finds Greenland; convinces people to join himc 1000 his son, Leif Erikson, sails west and explores eastern coastFind grapes, calls it “Vineland”Return with lumber,pelts and grapesClash with ‘skraelings’ NativesL’Anse aux MeadowsFirst permanent European settlement in North AmericaVineland - too far from home, too many dangersGreenland - by 1350 gone- environmental changes, population growth, economic and climatic downturn
18Vikings in Normandy - Settlement Vikings raids along the coast of France, Spain and even into Italy in 862.They attacked, plundered and left.845 Charles the Bald, king of Franks, pays off raiders with 7000s livers885 led by Siegfried, Vikings attack Paris; they appeal to Emperor Charles for help. Charles allows Northman to plunder the country of Sens and gives them 700 pounds of silver on the promise that they will return home in spring and not return.911 Viking leader Rolo becomes vassal ofFrench King Charles the Simple, who gives Rolothe duchy of Normandy and Rolo converts toChristianity.Norsemen settle in Normandy and becomefarmers, build citiesIn 1066 descendant William, Duke of Normandy, conquers Britain.
19Vikings in Britain - Expansion 789 first Viking ships arrived on shores of Wessex.Local reeve sent to greet them and was killed on the spot.793 considered staring point of Viking raiding with the attack on Lindisfarne‘on 8 june 793 AD ravages of heathen men miserably destroyed God’s church on Lindisfarne with plunder and slaughter’ (Anglo Saxon Chronicle)Pillaged monasteries along the coast repeatedly850s began to winter in England
20Vikings in Britain – Settlement By late 800s had conquered almost whole of EnglandAlfred the Great of Wessex able to fortify and regroupRetreated to Danelaw - area where the Danish Vikings settled.Late 900s rebirth and growth of monasteries and church buildingEconomic stability = $$‘second Viking age”Raiding focus now was extortion
21The Danegeld $7 million 991 - 4 500 kg of silver 994 – 7000 kg Oleg of Norway attackedEthelred Unready collected tax994 – 7000 kgOleg returned with Svein of Denmark1002 – kg1007 – kg1012 – kgEthelred drained coffers and then fledSwein’s son Knut becomes king of England, Denmark, Norway and part of Sweden.
22Three Vikings Battles for Britain Last Anglo-Saxon King of BritainHarold IIHarold II1. Battle of Stamford Bridge2. Battle of HastingsDuke William of NormandyHarald Hardrada of NorwayClaimed throne as kinsmen of Cnut. Defeated at Stamford Bridge.Descendant of Viking settlers in NormandyWilliam the Conquer becomes King of Britain in 1066
23Swedish Vikings - Expansion Traded furs, amber, honey, wax, weapons and slaves from Baltic to Caspian and Black SeaOccupied fortified towns where they could exchange boatsNovgorod, main trading center, ruled as princesKievKnown as the RusMade 4 attempts on Constantinople (Miklagard, the big city)Greeks were impressed by the ‘ax-bearing barbarians” and hired them as mercenaries for kingdomServe as emperor’s personal Varangian Guard.
24Kievan Rus – Settlement Rurik dynasty began in Novgorod in 860sOnly ended in the 16th century.11th century, Kiev commercial, cultural and spiritual centerSent emissaries shopping for a religionIslam demanded abstinence – Vladimir replied “Drink is the joy of the Rus. We cannot exist without that pleasure”Probably chose Greek Orthodox Church in order to strengthen his ties to Byzantiumsubjects walked into the Dnieper for a mass baptism.
25Assimilation Yaroslav the Wise (978-1054) “Father in law of Europe” ChildrenElizabeth married Harald Hardraada, King of NorwayAnna become Queen of FranceAnastasia married Andrew I of HungarySon Vsevolod married daughter of Byzantine emperorFour sons had royal marriagesTwo to three generations in they borrowed Slavic language, customs and beliefs and married Slavic women9-10th century princes had Viking names, but later one’s were all SlavicThey integrated so much into the local population that they left almost no discernible mark on the culture.
26What happened to the Vikings? Vikings became citizens of many places in Europe.Conversion to Christianity lead to the downfall of the Norse religion and culture.Kings instituted taxes and the economy changed so that you could get along better off as a trader than a raider.The Viking invasions caused European kingdoms to be more centralized and focused.European kingdoms learned how to protect themselves and gain by trading and negotiating with the Vikings instead of battling them.