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793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided.

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Presentation on theme: "793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided."— Presentation transcript:

1 793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided

2 “In this year fierce, foreboding omens came over the land of Northumbria. There were excessive whirlwinds, lightning storms, and fiery dragons were seen flying in the sky. These signs were followed by great famine, and on January 8th the ravaging of heathen men destroyed God's church at Lindisfarne.” Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 793 Doomsday, as imagined by those under constant threat of Viking raids (remind you of anything?)

3 793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided Norwegians overwintered in British Isles; continue to do so increasingly through the 850s “Great Heathen Army” (Danish) led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan and Guthrum, arrive in East Anglia and set up winter quarters; cross to Northumbria and capture Jorvik / York

4 Codex Aureus (mid 8 th c gospel book) added inscription (OE) telling how the book was purchased from a Viking army ‘because we were not willing that these holy books should remain any longer in heathen hands’

5 793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided Norwegians overwintered in British Isles; continue to do so increasingly through the 850s “Great Heathen Army” (Danish) led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan and Guthrum, arrive in East Anglia and set up winter quarters; cross to Northumbria and capture Jorvik / York AS Chronicle says warriors “proceeded to plough and support themselves” 878- Alfred defeats the Danes at Edington; as a term of the surrender, Alfred insists Guthrum be baptized and serves as his Godfather

6 the Gosforth cross Cumbria 14’ 6” tall scenes from the Bible and Scandinavian mythology ca

7 793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided Norwegians overwintered in British Isles; continue to do so increasingly through the 850s “Great Heathen Army” (Danish) led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan and Guthrum, arrive in East Anglia and set up winter quarters; cross to Northumbria and capture Jorvik / York AS Chronicle says warriors “proceeded to plough and support themselves” 878- Alfred defeats the Danes at Edington; as a term of the surrender, Alfred insists Guthrum be baptized and serves as his Godfather 886- Treaty of Alfred the Great and Guthrum creates (what will be known as) the Danelaw

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9 793 - monastery on Lindisfarne island (NE England) is raided Norwegians overwintered in British Isles; continue to do so increasingly through the 850s “Great Heathen Army” (Danish) led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan and Guthrum, arrive in East Anglia and set up winter quarters; cross to Northumbria and capture Jorvik / York AS Chronicle says warriors “proceeded to plough and support themselves” 878- Alfred defeats the Danes at Edington; as a term of the surrender, Alfred insists Guthrum be baptized and serves as his Godfather Treaty of Alfred the Great and Guthrum creates (what will be known as) the Danelaw 892 – The Great Danish Army (250 ship) encamps in Kent; moment of crisis for the English, but they defend themselves respectably and the Vikings eventually break up

10 910 s – Edward the Elder and his sister Aethelflaed conquer Danish territories in the Midlands and East Anglia (but some Danes allowed to keep their lands) 917- Viking invaders from Ireland take Jorvik a new wave of Danish Vikings take Jorvik, led by Erik Bloodaxe 954- Erik Bloodaxe driven out of Northumbria, ending Viking rule 980s - raids on England which were likely originating in Ireland 990s – raiding again picks up, attraction of England greater than ever as commerce thrives (silver especially) – but raiders often just bought off 994 – Vikings hired as mercenaries by the English king for the first time – to protect against other Vikings

11 Scandinavian place-names in England concentrated in the North-East

12 910 s – Edward the Elder and his sister Aethelflaed conquer Danish territories in the Midlands and East Anglia (but some Danes allowed to keep their lands) 917- Viking invaders from Ireland take Jorvik a new wave of Danish Vikings take Jorvik, led by Erik Bloodaxe 954- Erik Bloodaxe driven out of Northumbria, ending Viking rule 980s - raids on England which were likely originating in Ireland 990s – raiding again picks up, attraction of England greater than ever as commerce thrives (silver especially) – but raiders often just bought off 994 – Vikings hired as mercenaries by the English king for the first time – to protect against other Vikings after returning several times to collect tribute, Sven Forkbeard conquers England reign of Sven Forkbeard’s son, Cnut the Great of Denmark, Norway, part of Sweden and England

13 The extent of Cnut of Denmark’s rule = The North Sea Empire

14 English king of England again, Edward the Confessor; Norwegians who had settled all over England rebel in support of Magnus (the new Norwegian king) (but they fail)

15 Scandinavian place-names in England concentrated in the North-East

16 English king of England again, Edward the Confessor; Norwegians who had settled all over England rebel in support of Magnus (the new Norwegian king) and then his uncle Harold Hardrada (but they fail) Edward the Confessor dies, Harold Godwinson takes over English throne; Harald Hardrada invades (with the help of HG’s brother) but is defeated at the Battle of Stamford Bridge = the end of the Viking era in England … ? 3 weeks later, Battle of Hastings puts William the Conqueror and the Normans in control of England (Normandy had been settled by Vikings)

17 Jorvik excavation Coppergate imagined

18 Viking village reconstructed belt fasteners disc brooches


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