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The Human Service Profession: History and Standards Chapter Two
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 2 2 The History of the Human Service Profession Why Look at History? Kuhn suggested that knowledge builds upon itself and... new discoveries are based on the evolution of past knowledge. Kuhn also suggested that very once in a while, there is a paradigm shift in which there is a new understanding of knowledge or a new way of making sense of what you are doing. What paradigm shifts have taken place in the mental health fields? Are we due for another shift? Human services draws from psychology, social work, and counseling, so let’s take a very brief overview at those fields and see how we draw from them. But, first, let’s look at some distant predecessors of social services.
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 3 3 Predecessors to Modern-Day Social Service Fields Since dawn of time, people have attempted to understand the human condition Before religion: myths, magic, beliefs in spirits, ritualism, and sacred art used as implements of introspection Shamans were considered caretakers of the soul Later, soul was replaced by “psyche” (or at least, “psyche” was added to soul) Modern-day understanding of the “psyche” only arose in the past 200 years. Are we due for another shift Eventually fields of psychology, social work, and counseling began to work with the “psyche”
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 4 4 A Brief History of the Psychology Profession Hippocrates: Greek philosopher who reflected on the human condition. Some of his suggestions for treatment of the human condition seem “modern,’ even by today’s standards: For melancholia he recommended sobriety, a regular and tranquil life, exercise short of fatigue, and bleeding, if necessary. For hysteria, he recommended marriage! Plato: Introspection and reflection are the keys to understanding knowledge. Problems have physical, moral, and spiritual origins. Aristotle: Some consider him to be the “first psychologist.” Objectively studied knowledge and wrote essays on how people learn through association and the place that senses play in learning. Augustine ( CE) and Thomas Aquinas: ( CE). They highlighted consciousness, self-examination, and inquiry. Nothing much occurred between their times as church had renewed focus on the supernatural. After Aquinas: The Renaissance (modern philosophy).
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 5 5 A Brief History of the Psychology Profession The mid to late 1800s: Wundt and Sir Francis Galton (experimental psychology) Alfred Binet: Intelligence testing The Testing Period Late 1800s: Mesmer, hypnosis, then Freud and psychoanalysis. Although Freud was a physician, psychology often claims him Late 1800s early 1900s: Adler, Erik Erikson APA founded by G. Stanley Hall Expansion of the field Modern Mental Hospital Impact on the human service field: Theoretical underpinnings; Nature of the person; Ways to work with clients. Psychologists are our employers, supervisors, colleagues and consultants.
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 6 6 A Brief History of the Social Work Profession Early influences of social work, 1601: The Poor Laws in England: gave church the legal power to help with overseeing the poor“ 1800s in U.S.: “Reform schools, lunatic asylums,” and other “institutions” 1800s: Charity Organization Societies had “friendly visitors” to help with the poor and the Settlement Movement had volunteers work with the poor (e.g., Jane Addams at Hull House 1900: Mary Richmond had “casebooks” and helped to establish the beginning of social work training 1950s-1960s: Virginia Satir and family counseling. Establishment of NASW and ACSW Impact on the human service field: Focus on support, advocacy, and caretaking. Gave us casework, systems counseling, and more. Like social workers, HSPs help the most underprivileged. Our supervisors, administrators, colleagues, and consultants.
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 7 7 A Brief History of the Counseling Profession Early influence: The Industrial Revolution and Vocational Guidance Frank Parsons: Vocational counseling—”founder of vocational guidance.” NVGA considered forerunner of American Counseling Association 1940s: Carl Rogers and humanistic approach to counseling 1950s: NDEA and expansion of school counseling 1960s – 1970s: Social services programs—”Great Society”; microcounseling skills 1990s: Focus on “developmental counseling” 2000: More recently, social and cultural counseling and advocacy Impact on the human service field: Humanistic counseling, counseling skills, career counseling, developmental focus, prevention and education, social and cultural issues
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 8 8 A History of the Human Service Profession Emerging Need for Human Service Practitioners: The National Mental Health Act (1946) and the creation of NIMH Development of community mental health centers (1963) Civil Rights movement and new social and economic laws result in need for professionals (Great Society). Master’s level professionals couldn’t do it all Associate- and Bachelor-Level Human Service Programs Arise Dr. Harold McPheeters and the development of degree programs from an SREB grant and NIMH funding 1975: Establishment of NOHS and 1979 establishment of CSHSE Recent History and a Look Toward the Future: Role of human service worker expanded and greatly needed to work with homeless, the poor, the mentally ill, those with disabilities, those with intellectual impairments, and more. Most associate and bachelor level (some master’s level) Credentialing: Human Services—Board Certified Practitioner (HS—BCP)
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 9 9 Professional Standards: Skills Standards Skills Standards Identification of job characteristics Development of skills needed from these job characteristics Twelve areas of competency developed based on the skills See competencies on page 48
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 10 Professional Standards: Credentialing Part 1 Purpose: Ensure competence of professional Benefits of: Increased Professionalization Parity Delimiting the field Protection of the public Types of Credentialing Registration Certification Licensure Credentialing in Human Services CCE in consultation with NOHS and CSHSE developed HS—BCP See Table 2.1 Other: e.g., state certifications??
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 11 Professional Standards: Credentialing Part 2 Many different credentials—many different credentialing processes Some select credentials Some states have bachelor level certification in substance abuse Master’s level certification in substance abuse: MAC (NBCC) Master’s degree in counseling: CRCC, LPC, NCC, CFT, LMFT Master’s degree in social work: ACSW, QCSW, DCSW, LCSW School psychologist, clinical psychologist or counseling psychologist Couples and family therapy: LMFT and CFT Psychiatrist: Board Certified Psychiatric or mental health nurse: APRN
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 12 Professional Standards: Ethics Development of ethical codes: 1953-APA; 1960-NASW; 1961-ACA, NOHS (see Appendix A) Purposes and limitations (see bottom of page 52 to top of page 53) Ethical concerns (review Table 2.2 and discuss: pp ) Three Ethical Decision-Making Models A.Problem-solving models: Seven steps 1.Identify problem or dilemma 2.Identify potential issues involved 3.Review ethical guidelines 4.Know laws and regulations 5.Obtain consultation 6.Consider possible courses of action 7.Enumerate consequences of actions 8.Decide best course of action
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 13 Professional Standards: Ethics (Cont’d) Ethical Decision-Making Models (cont’d) B.Moral models Kitchener’s principle ethics model (principles codes should embody: autonomy, nonmaleficense, beneficence, justice, fidelity, veracity. Virtue ethics model of Mear, Schmidt, and Day (virtues, people should embody): Prudence, integrity, respectful, benevolence. C.Developmental models: (e.g., Perry and Kegan). People become more complex as they develop. “Higher level” people don’t look for “the answer” and realize the complexity of situations. “Lower level” people are dualistic, oversimplify, and rigid in their thinking. Examples of ethical behavior in different situations Discuss “Becky” in Activity 2.1 on p. 58 Apply: problem solving model, moral models, and developmental models
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 14 Professional Standards: Program Accreditation CSHSE: Accrediting body for human services The process of obtaining accreditation is rigorous The following offers some potential benefits of obtaining accreditation for a human service program. However, CSHSE is still new, and this isn’t always the case… Students more knowledgeable Graduation from an accredited programs sometimes speeds up the credentialing process (e.g., HS—BCP) Maintenance of high standards Improved programs More “money” from administrators and funding agencies to accrediting programs More job opportunities from those who graduate from accredited programs Attract better faculty Attract better students
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 15 Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues: Competence and Qualifications as a Professional Part of our ethical code to be competent (see bottom of p. 59) We all should: Become a member of a professional association Read journals Continue education by participating in workshops and conferences Obtain credentials Other?
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 16 The Effective Human Service Professional: Professionally Committed, Ethically Assured Committed to professional growth and competence Knows roots of his or her profession Can consult with others Can make good ethical judgment calls Abreast of recent trends Supports standards Provides best service possible to clients
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 17 Summary The history of helping one another How psychology, social work, and counseling have affected the human service profession The emergence and development of the human service field Four standards: Skills standards Credentialing Ethical standards Program accreditation Ethical dilemmas and decisions Process and benefits of accreditation Competence
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 18 Exercises See pp. 62–67 Includes: Definitions of people, places and terms Discussions and comparisons Solving ethical dilemmas
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