Presentation on theme: "The Human Service Profession: History and Standards"— Presentation transcript:
1The Human Service Profession: History and Standards Chapter TwoThe Human Service Profession:History and Standards
2The History of the Human Service Profession Why Look at History?Kuhn suggested that knowledge builds upon itself and ... new discoveries are based on the evolution of past knowledge.Kuhn also suggested that very once in a while, there is a paradigm shift in which there is a new understanding of knowledge or a new way of making sense of what you are doing.What paradigm shifts have taken place in the mental health fields?Are we due for another shift?Human services draws from psychology, social work, and counseling, so let’s take a very brief overview at those fields and see how we draw from them. But, first, let’s look at some distant predecessors of social services.
3Predecessors to Modern-Day Social Service Fields Since dawn of time, people have attempted to understand the human conditionBefore religion: myths, magic, beliefs in spirits, ritualism, and sacred art used as implements of introspectionShamans were considered caretakers of the soulLater, soul was replaced by “psyche” (or at least, “psyche” was added to soul)Modern-day understanding of the “psyche” only arose in the past 200 years.Are we due for another shiftEventually fields of psychology, social work, and counseling began to work with the “psyche”
4A Brief History of the Psychology Profession Hippocrates: Greek philosopher who reflected on the human condition. Some of his suggestions for treatment of the human condition seem “modern,’ even by today’s standards:For melancholia he recommended sobriety, a regular and tranquil life, exercise short of fatigue, and bleeding, if necessary. For hysteria, he recommended marriage!Plato: Introspection and reflection are the keys to understanding knowledge. Problems have physical, moral, and spiritual origins.Aristotle: Some consider him to be the “first psychologist.” Objectively studied knowledge and wrote essays on how people learn through association and the place that senses play in learning.Augustine ( CE) and Thomas Aquinas: ( CE). They highlighted consciousness, self-examination, and inquiry. Nothing much occurred between their times as church had renewed focus on the supernatural. After Aquinas: The Renaissance (modern philosophy).
5A Brief History of the Psychology Profession The mid to late 1800s:Wundt and Sir Francis Galton (experimental psychology)Alfred Binet: Intelligence testingThe Testing PeriodLate 1800s: Mesmer, hypnosis, then Freud and psychoanalysis. Although Freud was a physician, psychology often claims himLate 1800s early 1900s:Adler, Erik EriksonAPA founded by G. Stanley HallExpansion of the fieldModern Mental HospitalImpact on the human service field: Theoretical underpinnings; Nature of the person; Ways to work with clients. Psychologists are our employers, supervisors, colleagues and consultants.
6A Brief History of the Social Work Profession Early influences of social work, 1601: The Poor Laws in England: gave church the legal power to help with overseeing the poor“1800s in U.S.: “Reform schools, lunatic asylums,” and other “institutions”1800s: Charity Organization Societies had “friendly visitors” to help with the poor and the Settlement Movement had volunteers work with the poor (e.g., Jane Addams at Hull House1900: Mary Richmond had “casebooks” and helped to establish the beginning of social work training1950s-1960s: Virginia Satir and family counseling. Establishment of NASW and ACSWImpact on the human service field: Focus on support, advocacy, and caretaking. Gave us casework, systems counseling, and more. Like social workers, HSPs help the most underprivileged. Our supervisors, administrators, colleagues, and consultants.
7A Brief History of the Counseling Profession Early influence: The Industrial Revolution and Vocational GuidanceFrank Parsons: Vocational counseling—”founder of vocational guidance.” NVGA considered forerunner of American Counseling Association1940s: Carl Rogers and humanistic approach to counseling1950s: NDEA and expansion of school counseling1960s – 1970s: Social services programs—”Great Society”; microcounseling skills1990s: Focus on “developmental counseling”2000: More recently, social and cultural counseling and advocacyImpact on the human service field: Humanistic counseling, counseling skills, career counseling, developmental focus, prevention and education, social and cultural issues
8A History of the Human Service Profession Emerging Need for Human Service Practitioners:The National Mental Health Act (1946) and the creation of NIMHDevelopment of community mental health centers (1963)Civil Rights movement and new social and economic laws result in need for professionals (Great Society). Master’s level professionals couldn’t do it allAssociate- and Bachelor-Level Human Service Programs AriseDr. Harold McPheeters and the development of degree programs from an SREB grant and NIMH funding1975: Establishment of NOHS and 1979 establishment of CSHSERecent History and a Look Toward the Future:Role of human service worker expanded and greatly needed to work with homeless, the poor, the mentally ill, those with disabilities, those with intellectual impairments, and more.Most associate and bachelor level (some master’s level)Credentialing: Human Services—Board Certified Practitioner (HS—BCP)
9Professional Standards: Skills Standards Identification of job characteristicsDevelopment of skills needed from these job characteristicsTwelve areas of competency developed based on the skillsSee competencies on page 48
10Professional Standards: Credentialing Part 1 Purpose: Ensure competence of professionalBenefits of:Increased ProfessionalizationParityDelimiting the fieldProtection of the publicTypes of CredentialingRegistrationCertificationLicensureCredentialing in Human ServicesCCE in consultation with NOHS and CSHSE developed HS—BCPSee Table 2.1Other: e.g., state certifications??
11Professional Standards: Credentialing Part 2 Many different credentials—many different credentialing processesSome select credentialsSome states have bachelor level certification in substance abuseMaster’s level certification in substance abuse: MAC (NBCC)Master’s degree in counseling: CRCC, LPC, NCC, CFT, LMFTMaster’s degree in social work: ACSW, QCSW, DCSW, LCSWSchool psychologist, clinical psychologist or counseling psychologistCouples and family therapy: LMFT and CFTPsychiatrist: Board CertifiedPsychiatric or mental health nurse: APRN
12Professional Standards: Ethics Development of ethical codes: 1953-APA; 1960-NASW; 1961-ACA, 1996-NOHS (see Appendix A)Purposes and limitations (see bottom of page 52 to top of page 53)Ethical concerns (review Table 2.2 and discuss: pp )Three Ethical Decision-Making ModelsProblem-solving models: Seven stepsIdentify problem or dilemmaIdentify potential issues involvedReview ethical guidelinesKnow laws and regulationsObtain consultationConsider possible courses of actionEnumerate consequences of actionsDecide best course of action
13Professional Standards: Ethics (Cont’d) Ethical Decision-Making Models (cont’d)Moral modelsKitchener’s principle ethics model (principles codes should embody: autonomy, nonmaleficense, beneficence, justice, fidelity, veracity.Virtue ethics model of Mear, Schmidt, and Day (virtues, people should embody): Prudence, integrity, respectful, benevolence.Developmental models: (e.g., Perry and Kegan). People become more complex as they develop. “Higher level” people don’t look for “the answer” and realize the complexity of situations. “Lower level” people are dualistic, oversimplify, and rigid in their thinking. Examples of ethical behavior in different situationsDiscuss “Becky” in Activity 2.1 on p. 58Apply: problem solving model, moral models, and developmental models
14Professional Standards: Program Accreditation CSHSE: Accrediting body for human servicesThe process of obtaining accreditation is rigorousThe following offers some potential benefits of obtaining accreditation for a human service program. However, CSHSE is still new, and this isn’t always the case…Students more knowledgeableGraduation from an accredited programs sometimes speeds up the credentialing process (e.g., HS—BCP)Maintenance of high standardsImproved programsMore “money” from administrators and funding agencies to accrediting programsMore job opportunities from those who graduate from accredited programsAttract better facultyAttract better students
15Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues: Competence and Qualifications as a Professional Part of our ethical code to be competent (see bottom of p. 59)We all should:Become a member of a professional associationRead journalsContinue education by participating in workshops and conferencesObtain credentialsOther?
16The Effective Human Service Professional: Professionally Committed, Ethically Assured Committed to professional growth and competenceKnows roots of his or her professionCan consult with othersCan make good ethical judgment callsAbreast of recent trendsSupports standardsProvides best service possible to clients
17Summary The history of helping one another How psychology, social work, and counseling have affected the human service professionThe emergence and development of the human service fieldFour standards:Skills standardsCredentialingEthical standardsProgram accreditationEthical dilemmas and decisionsProcess and benefits of accreditationCompetence
18Exercises See pp. 62–67 Includes: Definitions of people, places and termsDiscussions and comparisonsSolving ethical dilemmas