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Defining the Human Service Professional Chapter One
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 2 2 The Beginning: The Human Service Professional Degree Emerges Started in mid-1960s Response to President Johnson's Great Society initiatives Associate's and bachelor's programs in human services arose Today certificate, associate and bachelor's degree programs readily found Small number of graduate programs
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 3 3 Holds an associate or bachelor's degree in human services or related field A generalist well equipped to facilitate client change and growth Works in a wide variety of mental health/human service agencies Coursework varies and may include History of Human Services; Interviewing Skills; Interpersonal Relationships; Family Guidance /Counseling; Group Counseling; Crisis Intervention; Policy, Career, and Human Development; Research; Assessment; Theories; Multicultural Issues; Ethics; and Supervised Field Placement See Table 1.1 (p. 3): Select Job Titles in Human Services Who Is the Human Service Professional Today?
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 4 4 Thirteen functions according to the Southern Region Education Board (see Box 1.1) 1.Outreach worker 2.Broker 3.Advocate 4.Evaluator 5.Teacher/educator 6.Behavior changer 7.Mobilizer 8.Consultant 9.Community planner 10.Caregiver 11.Data manager 12.Administrator 13.Assistant to specialist Roles, Functions, Competencies, and Skills of the Human Service Professional
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 5 5 Skills Standards and Competencies 1.Participant empowerment 2.Communication 3.Assessment 4.Community and service networking 5.Facilitation of services 6.Supporting community and living skills 7.Education, training, and self-development 8.Advocacy 9.Vocational, educational, and career support 10.Crisis intervention 11.Organization participation 12.Documentation Roles, Functions, Competencies, and Skills of the Human Service Professional (Contd)
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 6 6 Psychiatrist Psychologist Social worker Counselor School Mental health College Rehabilitation Couple and family counselors Psychiatric/mental health nurse Psychotherapist Other??? Other Mental Health Professionals
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 7 7 See Table 1.2 Comparison of Human Service Professional with Counselor/Social Worker Psychologist Comparison of Select Professionals
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 8 8 Purpose of Professional Associations in the Human Services and Related Field Protect the rights and interests of the membership Sponsor conferences and workshops Publish newsletters and journals Provide opportunities for mentoring and networking Offer grants for special projects related to the field Lobby for issues Much more Your money helps all of this happen and protects you! Professional Associations
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 9 9 The Associations NOHS: National Organization for Human Services NASW: National Association of Social Workers ACA: American Counseling Association APA: American Psychological Association APA: American Psychiatric Association AAMFT: American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists APNA: American Psychiatric Nurses Association Professional Associations
Characteristics of the Effective Human Service Professional Empathy Genuineness Cognitive Complexity Wellness Competence Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Acceptance Relationship Building
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 11 May be most important factor in creating client change Closely related to the ability of the client and helper to build an emotional bond and work on setting attainable goals Impact of relationship building felt throughout counseling relationship One example: Salvador Minuchin's concept of alliance and joining Relationship Building
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 12 One of the most important characteristics Popularized by Carl Rogers To understand the inner world of the client Empathic people can get into the shoes of another Sensing the private world of another Star Trek: the empathic counselor Empathy
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 13 Also called congruence (Rogers) Feelings, thoughts, and actions are in sync Ability to be real Refers to willingness of the therapist to be authentic, open, and honest within the helping relationship at the appropriate time Genuineness
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 14 Sometimes called positive regard Rogers (1957): unconditional positive regard is being able to accept clients without strings attached Leo Buscaglia (1972) called this responsible love Does not mean liking everything a person does but rather accepting the person through deep understanding Acceptance
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 15 Understanding the world and clients in complex, multifaceted ways Being empathic, open-minded, and self-aware Ability to see clients predicament from multiple perspectives More effective with individuals from diverse cultures Reciprocity of knowledge and integration of new approaches Cognitive Complexity
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 16 Take care of personal wellness in order to be an effective helper Avoid stress and burnout Deal with unfinished psychological issues by attending counseling Prevent the possibility of incongruence or countertransference Find ways to work on staying healthy and well Myers and Sweeney suggest a model: The Indivisible Self Creative self Coping self Social self Essential self Physical self Wellness
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 17 Strive for helper expertise and mastery Cultivate a thirst for knowledge Stay updated with current journals and professional education Join professional organizations and attend supervision Strive to broaden and deepen the helping approach through lifelong learning View competence as a crucial ethical concern Competence
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 18 Unfortunate circumstances happen when helpers do not understand diverse clients Important for helpers to build bridges and form a working alliance with clients irrespective of cultural differences An effective helper must have cross-cultural sensitivity D'Andrea and Daniel's (2005) RESPECTFUL Counseling Model (see next slide) Cross-Cultural Sensitivity
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 19 D'Andrea and Daniel's (2005) RESPECTFUL Counseling Model (contd) R-Religious/spiritual identity E-Economic class background S-Sexual Identity P-Psychological development E- Ethnic/racial identity C-Chronological disposition T-Trauma and other threats to personal well-being F-Family history U-Unique physical characteristics L-Langue and location of residence Cross-Cultural Sensitivity
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 20 Humanistic Understanding Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow: Founders of the field of humanistic counseling Believed people are born with a natural actualizing tendency Nurturing environment brings out acquisition of characteristics suitable for helper Psychoanalytic Understanding Sigmund Freud: founder of psychoanalysis Sexual drives in combination with childhood experiences determine a person's temperament Learning Theory Understanding B.F. Skinner and Albert Ellis: behaviorist and cognitive therapists Individuals may not be born with characteristics but develop these qualities through experiences Becoming an Effective Helper: Personality Theory
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 21 An Adult Developmental Approach Robert Kegan and William Perry Individuals can change over a life span if placed in an environment conducive to developing the qualities of an effective helper: More empathic, less critical, less dogmatic More accepting, open to other viewpoints Increasingly complex thinkers Becoming an Effective Helper: Developmental Approach
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 22 Kegan's six stages of adult cognitive development Child development stages: Incorporative Impulsive Imperial Adult development stages: Interpersonal Institutional Interindividual Examples: Zelig (transition from stage 3 interpersonal to stage 4 institutional) Malcom X (interpersonal to institutional) Becoming an Effective Helper: Developmental Approach
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 23 Professional identity helps us: Define our professional limits Know when it is appropriate to consult with colleagues Offer services only within scope of professional knowledge and skill base Recognize when we should refer clients to other professionals Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues: Knowing Who We Are and Our Relationship to Other Professional Groups
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 24 The developed, mature human service professional is able to: Look at his or her own behavior Risk obtaining feedback from others Be open to change View life as an opportunity for growth and transformation Do Activity 1.1, p. 21 The Effective Human Service Professional: Willing to Meet the Challenges
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 25 Summary Emergence of Human Service Professionals Who Is HSP Today? Roles, Functions, Competencies, and Skills of HSP 13 Roles and Functions Skills Standards Comparison of Other Professionals to HSPs Eight Characteristics of HSPs Becoming an Effective HSP (Understanding our Own Development) Ethical Issues: Knowing our boundaries and limits of our professional knowledge Mature HSP: Able to look at own behavior and grow from feedback
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning 26 Exercises pp. 23-31 Includes: Comparing Social Service professionals and interviewing professionals SREBs 13 roles and functions Difference between counseling and psychotherapy Joining Professional Associations Characteristics of Effective Human Service Professional Assessing our Characteristics and our Values Assessing our Wellness Ethical and Professional Vignettes
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