3Section 1: County Government ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What are the powers of Georgia’s governor?
4Section 1: County Government What words do I need to know?governorlieutenant governor
5County GovernmentGeorgia has 159 counties, nearly 600 towns – each has a governmentcounty: subdivision of a state set up for certain governmental functionsmost Georgia counties are run by an elected Board of Commissionersmost counties are set up in a similar manner
6A Look at One County Camden County used as example County depends on tourism and Navy’s submarine base for jobs to support economySpanish settled area in 1500s – one of Georgia’s original countiesGovernment led by five-member Board of Commissionerscounty administrator hired by the Board to manage day-to-day operationsWoodbine is county seatSchool Board: five elected members and elected school superintendent
7Sharing Services Some city and county governments share services Fulton County is home to city of AtlantaFulton County and city of Atlanta share zoning duties and library systemFulton and DeKalb counties share a hospital authorityFulton County and the City of Atlanta have separate school systems
8Officials in County Government Most counties have the following elected officials:commissioners, superior court clerk, probate court judge, sheriff, tax commissioner, coronerMany officials are appointed:county clerk, fire chief, road supervisor, emergency management director, attorney, planning and building inspector, etc.Larger counties have more officialsClick to return to Table of Contents.
9Section 2: City Government and Special-Purpose Districts ESSENTIAL QUESTION:How do city governments work in Georgia?
10Section 2: City Government and Special-Purpose Districts What words do I need to know?municipalitymayor-council formfigureheadcouncil-manager formspecial purpose districtad valorem taxesuser feegeneral local option sales taxspecial purpose local option sales taxbond issue
11City Government municipality: a city with its own government city receives charter from state legislaturecity charter explains what the city government can dopolice protection, maintain streets and sidewalks, license businesses, control traffic, provide water and seweragesome city charters allow for a city-run school system
12Forms of City Government Mayor-Council: most common in Georgiaelected council, elected mayorweak-mayor system: mayor has little power, figureheadstrong-mayor system: mayor has power to run the city, propose budget, can veto councilCouncil-Managervoters elect council membersmayor may be elected or appointedcouncil hires city manager for day-to-day operations of the cityCity Commissionvoters elect commissionerscommissioners form department heads of the citymayor chosen by the commissioners
13City-County Government some city and county governments merge when the region becomes more urbancan reduce the cost of governmentExamplesAthens-Clarke CountyColumbus-Muskogee CountyAugusta-Richmond County
14Special Purpose Disticts Created for a specific job or taskWithin certain guidelines, these districts are self-governingExamplesschool districtsMARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority)Public Housing AuthorityGeorgia Ports Authority
15Funding Local Government Sources of funding include state and federal grants and taxes on citizensad valorem taxes: taxes paid based on the value of the propertyuser fees: paid by the user of the servicesales tax: added to purchases made in the city or countygeneral purpose local option sales tax: tax for general usespecial purpose local option sales tax (SPLOST): approved by voters, adds sales tax to fund special projects such as parks or schoolsbond issues: a way for governments to borrow money; interest must be paid on the bondsClick to return to Table of Contents.
16Section 3: Where Do Georgia’s Citizens Live? ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhere do Georgia’s citizens live?
17Section 3: Where Do Georgia’s Citizens Live? What words do I need to know?urban arearural areametropolitan areaurban sprawl
18Where do Georgians Live? Georgia is one of fastest-growing statesHispanics are fastest-growing groupGeorgia’s has an increasing number of older citizensMost Georgians (2/3) live in metropolitan area (area in or around a city)Over 50% of Georgians live in metro AtlantaJust 50 years ago, most Georgians lived in rural areas – Georgians were mostly farmers
19Urban SprawlIn 1960s, people began to move to suburbs – areas near edge of citiesExpansion of suburbs created declines in urban populationLarge numbers of people in suburbs cause challenges to infrastructure – not enough roads, utilities, schools, sewerage, etc.Sprawl can cause traffic and pollution problems and an economic problem for the central city since the number of residents declines
20Urban Revitalization Effort to attract citizens to live in urban areas Cities need people to work and live there in order to grow and be healthyExamplesAtlanta: Sweet Auburn, Little Five Points, Virginia HighlandsSavannah: historic district, Bay Street, Factor’s WalkAugusta: RiverwalkClick to return to Table of Contents.
21Section 4: Participation in a Representative Democracy ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat duties and responsibilities do I have as a citizen?
22Section 4: Participation in a Representative Democracy What words do I need to know?political partyinterest grouplobbyistgeneral electioncitizenshipnaturalized citizen
23Political PartiesOrganized groups of people with common ideals – seek to influence government policiesTwo major political parties in US:DemocratsRepublicansMinor political parties also existIndependents are not part of a particular political party
24Interest GroupsPeople who share common goals and objectives who ban together with others for political purposesMay be concerned with labor issues, business issues, agricultural issues, etc.lobbyist: person paid to represent interest groups in Washington or AtlantaMay support certain candidates in elections if they believe doing so will help their group
25Voters Major influence of government each election day Voters decide who will make the decisions for the governmentGeorgia Election Code guides national, state, and local electionsGeneral election: held each November in even-numbered years to elect major federal and state officialsOther elections may be held as needed for national, state, county or city officialsVoters select most important officials, others are appointed
26Public Opinion Influences government decisions News media keep voters informed about issuesVoters can call or write representatives to explain how they want the official to vote or actExample: Vietnam War; public opinion against the war became so great that leaders had to end America’s involvement
27CitizenshipIf your parents are US citizens or you were born in the US, you have all the rights and protections of the US and Georgia constitutionsNaturalized citizen: foreigner who chooses to become a US citizenProcess to become naturalized citizen requires much time and effortResponsibilities go along with rightsparticipation in government (voting, running for office)upholding the laws of the nation and statedefending the nation against enemiesserve on juriesserving the communityClick to return to Table of Contents.