3Georgia has 159 counties, nearly 600 towns – each has a government county: subdivision of a state set up for certain governmental functionsMost Georgia counties are run by an elected Board of Commissioners.Most counties are set up in a similar manner.
4Sharing Services Some city and county governments share services. Fulton County is home to city of Atlanta.Fulton County and city of Atlanta share zoning duties and library system.Fulton and DeKalb counties share a hospital authority.Fulton County and the City of Atlanta have separate school systems.
5Officials in County Government Most counties have the following elected officials:commissioners, superior court clerk, probate court judge, sheriff, tax commissioner, coronerMany officials are appointed:county clerk, fire chief, road supervisor, emergency management director, attorney, planning and building inspector, etc.Larger counties have more officials.
8municipality: a city with its own government City receives charter from state legislature.City charter explains what the city government can do...police protection, maintain streets and sidewalks, license businesses, control traffic, provide water and sewerageSome city charters allow for a city-run school system.
9Forms of City Government Mayor-Council: most common in Georgiaelected council, elected mayorweak-mayor system: mayor has little power, figureheadstrong-mayor system: mayor has power to run the city, propose budget, can veto councilCouncil-Managervoters elect council membersmayor may be elected or appointedcouncil hires city manager for day-to-day operations of the cityCity Commissionvoters elect commissionerscommissioners form department heads of the citymayor chosen by the commissioners
10City-County Government some city and county governments merge when the region becomes more urbancan reduce the cost of governmentExamples:Athens-Clarke CountyColumbus-Muskogee CountyAugusta-Richmond County
11Special Purpose Districts Created for a specific job or taskWithin certain guidelines, these districts are self-governingExamplesschool districtsMARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority)Public Housing AuthorityGeorgia Ports Authority
12Funding Local Government Sources of funding include state and federal grants and taxes on citizensad valorem taxes: taxes paid based on the value of the propertyuser fees: paid by the user of the servicesales tax: added to purchases made in the city or countygeneral purpose local option sales tax: tax for general usespecial purpose local option sales tax (SPLOST): approved by voters, adds sales tax to fund special projects such as parks or schoolsbond issues: a way for governments to borrow money; interest must be paid on the bonds
14Georgia is one of fastest-growing states Hispanics are fastest-growing groupGeorgia’s has an increasing number of older citizensMost Georgians (2/3) live in metropolitan area (area in or around a city)Over 50% of Georgians live in metro AtlantaJust 50 years ago, most Georgians lived in rural areas – Georgians were mostly farmers
15Urban SprawlIn 1960s, people began to move to suburbs – areas near edge of cities.Expansion of suburbs created declines in urban population.Large numbers of people in suburbs cause challenges to infrastructure – not enough roads, utilities, schools, sewerage, etc.Sprawl can cause traffic and pollution problems and an economic problem for the central city since the number of residents decline.
16Urban Revitalization Effort to attract citizens to live in urban areas Cities need people to work and live there in order to grow and be healthy.Examples:Atlanta: Sweet Auburn, Little Five Points, Virginia HighlandsSavannah: historic district, Bay Street, Factor’s WalkAugusta: Riverwalk