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Intelletual Disability James River Special Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Intelletual Disability James River Special Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelletual Disability James River Special Education

2 What is Intellectual Disability? Intellectual Disability (ID)  affects 1 - 3% of the population;  is not unique to specific racial, ethnic, educational, or economic backgrounds;  is more common in males than in females.

3 What Is The Definition of ID? According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) it includes:  significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior;  IQ test score around (or below) 70 or as high as 75  Onset before 18 years of age

4 How Prevalent is ID?  Approximately 4.6 million Americans are identified as ID (1-3%)  Around 575,000 children receive special education services in school.  1 out of every 10 children who need special education has some sort of ID.

5 Degrees of Severity  There are four degrees of severity based on IQ scores.  Mild (IQ = )  Moderate (IQ = )  Severe (IQ = 20 – 40)  Profound (IQ < 25) ***People of average intelligence score from about on IQ tests.

6 The “Normal” (Bell) Curve IQ Range of ID

7 Mild  Mild ID affects 85% of people with the disability.  They can develop academic skills around the sixth-grade level.  They can work and live in the community with assistance.  Some marry and have children.

8 Moderate  About 10% of people with ID are at the moderate level.  They can achieve academic skills up to the second-grade level.  As adults, most can work at unskilled or semiskilled jobs with supervision.  They are unlikely to live independently.

9 Severe  3 to 4 % of people with ID are in the severe range.  Some may learn to talk during childhood and develop basic self-care skills.  They can perform simple tasks with close supervision.  They often live in group homes or with their families.

10 Profound  1 to 2 % of individuals with ID have IQs in the profound range;  They may be able to develop basic self- care and communication skills with appropriate support and training.  Their retardation is often caused by an accompanying neurological disorder.  Profoundly retarded people need a high level of structure and supervision

11 Causes of ID  Genetic abnormalities (Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, PKU)  Prenatal conditions (malnutrition, use of alcohol or drugs, environmental toxins, infections, diseases)  Problems at birth (premature birth or low birth weight, oxygen deprivation)  Infectious diseases (measles, chicken pox, whooping cough, encephalitis, meningitis)

12 Identification of ID  Observation  Ability and Achievement Testing  Adaptive Skills Assessment

13 Classroom Implications  Students learn at a slower rate than peers;  They require more repetition;  They need additional time;  They think in concrete terms;  They require “hands-on” learning;  They have impaired social interaction skills;

14 More Classroom Implications  Students have impaired language skills (receptive and expressive);  They require assignments or projects to be task analyzed or broken into small steps.  Students need direct instruction; they don’t pick things up through observation as peers do.

15 What Can Teachers Do?  Remember that you have a tremendous impact on students;  Accept them as individuals and work to make them a part of your class;  Provide awareness opportunities for other students;

16 What Can Teachers Do?  Provide additional time;  Provide “hands-on” activities;  Break tasks into smaller components;  Use alternate means of assessing other than a test;  Provide word-banks, multiple-choice questions, etc.

17 What Can Teachers Do?  Provide study guides that allow the student to concentrate on important details;  Highlight key words and phrases;  Help the student generalize skills, by allowing skills practice in other environments;  Think “survival skills”—What will the child need most in the world outside of school?

18 What Can Teachers Do?  Provide multisensory learning opportunities.  Provide for work experience or on-the- job training where skills that are learned can be practiced. Much of what teachers are asked to do depends on the level of the disability.

19 Resources    Mental-retardation.html 


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