Presentation on theme: "Intelletual Disability James River Special Education."— Presentation transcript:
Intelletual Disability James River Special Education
What is Intellectual Disability? Intellectual Disability (ID) affects 1 - 3% of the population; is not unique to specific racial, ethnic, educational, or economic backgrounds; is more common in males than in females.
What Is The Definition of ID? According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) it includes: significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior; IQ test score around (or below) 70 or as high as 75 Onset before 18 years of age
How Prevalent is ID? Approximately 4.6 million Americans are identified as ID (1-3%) Around 575,000 children receive special education services in school. 1 out of every 10 children who need special education has some sort of ID.
Degrees of Severity There are four degrees of severity based on IQ scores. Mild (IQ = 50 - 70) Moderate (IQ = 35 - 55) Severe (IQ = 20 – 40) Profound (IQ < 25) ***People of average intelligence score from about 85 - 115 on IQ tests.
Mild Mild ID affects 85% of people with the disability. They can develop academic skills around the sixth-grade level. They can work and live in the community with assistance. Some marry and have children.
Moderate About 10% of people with ID are at the moderate level. They can achieve academic skills up to the second-grade level. As adults, most can work at unskilled or semiskilled jobs with supervision. They are unlikely to live independently.
Severe 3 to 4 % of people with ID are in the severe range. Some may learn to talk during childhood and develop basic self-care skills. They can perform simple tasks with close supervision. They often live in group homes or with their families.
Profound 1 to 2 % of individuals with ID have IQs in the profound range; They may be able to develop basic self- care and communication skills with appropriate support and training. Their retardation is often caused by an accompanying neurological disorder. Profoundly retarded people need a high level of structure and supervision
Causes of ID Genetic abnormalities (Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, PKU) Prenatal conditions (malnutrition, use of alcohol or drugs, environmental toxins, infections, diseases) Problems at birth (premature birth or low birth weight, oxygen deprivation) Infectious diseases (measles, chicken pox, whooping cough, encephalitis, meningitis)
Identification of ID Observation Ability and Achievement Testing Adaptive Skills Assessment
Classroom Implications Students learn at a slower rate than peers; They require more repetition; They need additional time; They think in concrete terms; They require “hands-on” learning; They have impaired social interaction skills;
More Classroom Implications Students have impaired language skills (receptive and expressive); They require assignments or projects to be task analyzed or broken into small steps. Students need direct instruction; they don’t pick things up through observation as peers do.
What Can Teachers Do? Remember that you have a tremendous impact on students; Accept them as individuals and work to make them a part of your class; Provide awareness opportunities for other students;
What Can Teachers Do? Provide additional time; Provide “hands-on” activities; Break tasks into smaller components; Use alternate means of assessing other than a test; Provide word-banks, multiple-choice questions, etc.
What Can Teachers Do? Provide study guides that allow the student to concentrate on important details; Highlight key words and phrases; Help the student generalize skills, by allowing skills practice in other environments; Think “survival skills”—What will the child need most in the world outside of school?
What Can Teachers Do? Provide multisensory learning opportunities. Provide for work experience or on-the- job training where skills that are learned can be practiced. Much of what teachers are asked to do depends on the level of the disability.