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Jefferson Posadas. Mental retardation is a condition that comes before the age of 18 years old. This condition renders the person under the general intellectual.

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Presentation on theme: "Jefferson Posadas. Mental retardation is a condition that comes before the age of 18 years old. This condition renders the person under the general intellectual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jefferson Posadas

2 Mental retardation is a condition that comes before the age of 18 years old. This condition renders the person under the general intellectual function level ( under a 70 IQ score).

3 People with this disability have Intellectual deficit. A hard time adapting to everyday life activities. A lack in social skill, judgment and communication. A dependence on others for personal care. In Extreme cases infant like behaviors at child and teen age Isolation It affects from 1-3% of the population.

4

5 Mental retardation is a very broad term for mental deficiency, there are many more specific conditions under the wing of mental retardation.

6 Mild mental retardation makes up 80% of diagnosis of the deficiency. Most of the people in this categories are able to live completely functional lives, they can get up to the sixth grade. They do usually require guidance when under unusual circumstances socially or economically

7 {In this level of Deficiency a child could learn basic communication and motor skills, he may be able to walk around familiar places he may reach 2 nd grade in elementary school, in adulthood they don’t need be supervised all the time, they are able to do unskilled work and extra supervision under stress.

8 This is high level of deficiency, any child will learn to say a few words for survival communication they show poor motor skills. They can learn to communicate basic things and may learn a few healthy habits. As grown ups they require 24/7 supervision and may learn protection habits in controlled environments

9 Extremely limited communication skills and motor skills, need nursing, will not perform in grade school. Limited cognitive capability, will probably need nursing all of his life.

10 There many causes for mental deficiency but that can be broken down into sections through. Infection, Nutritional Chromosomal, Toxic Genetic, Trauma Environmental, Unexplained. Metabolic,

11 Congenital CMV Congenital rubella Congenital toxoplasmosis Encephalitis HIV infection Listeriosis Meningitis

12 Chromosome deletions (cri du chat syndrome Chromosomal translocations (a gene is located in an unusual spot on a chromosome, or located on a different chromosome than usual) Defects in the chromosome or chromosomal inheritance (for example, fragile X syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome) Errors of chromosome numbers (such as Down syndrome)

13 Deprivation Syndrome Adrenoleukodystrophy Galactosemia Hunter syndrome Hurler syndrome Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

14 Congenital hypothyroid Hypoglycemia (poorly regulated diabetes Reye syndrome Hyperbilirubinemia (very high bilirubin levels in babies)

15 Intrauterine exposure to alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, and other drugs Lead poisoning Methyl mercury poisoning Also Malnutrition

16 Intracranial hemorrhage before or after birth Lack of oxygen to the brain before, during, or after birth Severe head injury Also the most prominent cause in mental retardation unexplained

17 There is no cure for mental retardation, the primary goal of therapy is to improve the living condition and maximize potential of the individual. In case of aggressive subjects, they can be recommended meds to counter these behaviors Because of the high co-morbidity associated with mental retardation which include eating disorders and depression meds can be supplemented to treat these but not mental retardation as a whole.

18 Genetic: Prenatal screening for genetic defects and genetic counseling for families at risk for known inherited disorders can decrease the risk of inherited mental retardation.

19 Social: Government nutrition programs are available to poor children in the first and most critical years of life. These programs can reduce retardation associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty will also help.

20 Toxic: Environmental programs to reduce exposure to lead, mercury, and other toxins will reduce toxin-associated retardation. However, the benefits may take years to become apparent. Increased public awareness of the risks of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy can help reduce the incidence of retardation.

21 Infectious: The prevention of congenital rubella syndrome is probably one of the best examples of a successful program to prevent one form of mental retardation. Constant vigilance, such as limiting exposure to cat litter that can cause toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, helps reduce retardation that results from this infection.

22 A.d.a.m. (2009). Mental Retardation. Pub med health. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH / (2011). Mental retardation. Psyweb. Retrieved from


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