# Target Two: Steps of the Scientific Method.

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Target Two: Steps of the Scientific Method

The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to solve a problem

Scientific Method 1. Problem/Question 2. Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Test the Hypothesis (Experiment) 4. Collect Data and Analyze Results 5. Accept/Reject Hypothesis 6. Conclusion or Revise Hypothesis

Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation. This should be specific, not have a “yes/no” answer.

Caution! When writing the problem/question, be careful how you use effect and affect. Effect is usually a noun, affect is usually a verb. “ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.” “How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”

Steps of the Scientific Method
2. Formulate a Hypothesis: A testable prediction of the answer to the problem or question.

A hypothesis is written as an if/then statement
If (insert your hypothesis), then… Example: If soil temperatures affects plant growth, then as soil temperature increases, plant growth will increase.

Steps of the Scientific Method
3. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure. Include a detailed materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).

Steps of the Scientific Method
4. Collect Data and Analyze Results: Organize the results of the experiment. May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative (descriptive) Include tables, graphs, and photographs.

5. Accept/Reject Hypothesis:
Based on the analysis of the data.

Steps of the Scientific Method
6. Conclusion: The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment.

Think you can name all six steps?
Flip over your notes…. You have one minute… GO!

Target 3: Create a hypothesis from a question using an if/then statement.
Create an “if/then” statement for each question. 1. Will placing plants in sunlight make them grow taller? Answer: If plants are put in sunlight, then they will grow taller. 2. Does eating carrots make your skin turn orange? Answer: If one eats carrots, then his/her skin will turn orange. or If one eats carrots, then his/her skin will not turn orange

Target 4: Identify the independent and dependent variables when given a hypothesis, data table or graph.

Variables Two definitions: A variable is something that is changed
A constant, or control, is something that does not change

Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?
They are the same thing The independent variable changes, the dependent variable stays the same The independent variable changes, the dependent variable is the variable being measured The independent variable is the things that stay the same during the experiment, the dependent variable is standard used for comparison

Science experiments use…
Independent Variable: the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experiment Dependent Variable: the factor which is measured in the experiment Constants: all the factors that stay the same in an experiment

A birdy example… Imagine you want to see what color of bird feeders your local birds preferred. Red? Blue? Green? If a student wanted to determine whether feeder color has an effect, he might suggest, “if I put up a red, blue, and green feeder, birds will visit the green feeder more” as a hypothesis. He might speculate that the green feeder, being the most “camouflaged” or “natural” might be visited the most. Identify the independent and dependent variables and the constants

Our Constants and Variables
Independent Variable: color of the feeders Dependent Variable: amount of seed eaten Constants: everything else that is kept the same, for example: the location of the feeders the kind of feeder used putting the feeders out at the same time Independent Variable: the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experiment Dependent Variable: the factor which is measured in the experiment Constants: all the factors that stay the same in an experiment

Our Experimental Design
Constants Location of feeders Kind of seed Type of feeder Independent Variable Red Blue Green Dependent Amount of Seed Eaten

Scientific Method Gum Lab

Metric System (SI units)
Is a decimal system based on 10 K H Da g, m, l d c m Kids hate doing grammar during cold months math, literature Example: .001 kg hg dag g 10 dg 100 cg mg Used throughout the scientific world Used by scientists and hospitals

Units in the Metric System (SI units)
length meter m volume liter L mass gram g temperature Celsius °C

In every measurement there is a Unit from measuring device
Stating a Measurement In every measurement there is a Number followed by a Unit from measuring device

Questions???? A. The patient’s temperature is 55°C.
What is the SI unit of measurement in each of the following examples? A. The patient’s temperature is 55°C. B. The sack holds 5 decagrams of potatoes. C. It is 8 kilometers from your house to school. D. The bottle holds 2 L of orange soda.

Solution A. °C (degrees Celsius) B. dag C. kilometers D. L (liters)

Learning Check Identify the measurement in SI units.
A. John’s height is 1) 1.5 yards 2) 6 feet 3) 2 meters B. The volume of saline in the IV bottle is 1) 1 liters 2) 1 quart 3) 2 pints C. The mass of a lemon is 1) 12 ounces 2) 145 grams 3) 0.6 pounds

Solution A. John’s height is 3) 2 meters
B. The volume of saline in the IV bottle is 1) 1 liter C. The mass of a lemon is 2) 145 grams

OBSERVATION vs. INFERENCE

Observations The ability to notice significant details
Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world

Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails

Observation Record 5 observations about this science classroom. 1. 2.
3. 4. 5.

Inference A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
An example, Salamanders have curved tails when exposed to certain chemicals.

1. 2. 3.

Examples Observations That plant is extremely wilted.
The car stopped running The Reds are leading their division Inferences That plant is extremely wilted due to a lack of water. The car stooped running because it was out of gas. The Reds are leading their division because they are playing well right now.

More examples What observations can we make about this picture?
What can we infer based on this picture?

Look at these two sets of animal tracks.
List 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE

Now what do you think? Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE

Now what do you think? Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE

Target 5: Identify the control and experimental groups in an experiment.

Control Group In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison. The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.

All experiments should have a control group.
The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. All experiments should have a control group.

Control Group Because his grandmother always used 50g of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.

Write down 5 observations and 2 inferences based on the photo below.

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