2 The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to solve a problem
3 Scientific Method1. Problem/Question2. Formulate a Hypothesis3. Test the Hypothesis (Experiment)4. Collect Data and Analyze Results5. Accept/Reject Hypothesis6. Conclusion or Revise Hypothesis
4 Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation. This should be specific, not have a “yes/no” answer.
5 Caution!When writing the problem/question, be careful how you use effect and affect.Effect is usually a noun, affect is usually a verb.“ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.”“How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”
6 Steps of the Scientific Method 2. Formulate a Hypothesis: A testable prediction of the answer to the problem or question.
7 A hypothesis is written as an if/then statement If (insert your hypothesis), then…Example: If soil temperatures affects plant growth, then as soil temperature increases, plant growth will increase.
8 Steps of the Scientific Method 3. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure. Include a detailed materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
9 Steps of the Scientific Method 4. Collect Data and Analyze Results:Organize the results of the experiment.May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative (descriptive)Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
10 5. Accept/Reject Hypothesis: Based on the analysis of the data.
11 Steps of the Scientific Method 6. Conclusion: The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment.
12 Think you can name all six steps? Flip over your notes…. You have one minute… GO!
13 Target 3: Create a hypothesis from a question using an if/then statement. Create an “if/then” statement for each question.1. Will placing plants in sunlight make them grow taller?Answer: If plants are put in sunlight, then they will grow taller.2. Does eating carrots make your skin turn orange?Answer: If one eats carrots, then his/her skin will turn orange.orIf one eats carrots, then his/her skin will not turn orange
14 Target 4: Identify the independent and dependent variables when given a hypothesis, data table or graph.
15 Variables Two definitions: A variable is something that is changed A constant, or control, is something that does not change
16 Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables? They are the same thingThe independent variable changes, the dependent variable stays the sameThe independent variable changes, the dependent variable is the variable being measuredThe independent variable is the things that stay the same during the experiment, the dependent variable is standard used for comparison
17 Science experiments use… Independent Variable: the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experimentDependent Variable: the factor which is measured in the experimentConstants: all the factors that stay the same in an experiment
18 A birdy example…Imagine you want to see what color of bird feeders your local birds preferred.Red? Blue? Green?If a student wanted to determine whether feeder color has an effect, he might suggest, “if I put up a red, blue, and green feeder, birds will visit the green feeder more” as a hypothesis. He might speculate that the green feeder, being the most “camouflaged” or “natural” might be visited the most.Identify the independent and dependent variables and the constants
19 Our Constants and Variables Independent Variable: color of the feedersDependent Variable: amount of seed eatenConstants: everything else that is kept the same, for example:the location of the feedersthe kind of feeder usedputting the feeders out at the same timeIndependent Variable: the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experimentDependent Variable: the factor which is measured in the experimentConstants: all the factors that stay the same in an experiment
20 Our Experimental Design ConstantsLocation of feedersKind of seedType of feederIndependentVariableRedBlueGreenDependentAmount of Seed Eaten
22 Metric System (SI units) Is a decimal system based on 10K H Da g, m, l d c mKids hate doing grammar during cold monthsmath, literatureExample:.001 kg hg dag g 10 dg 100 cg mgUsed throughout the scientific worldUsed by scientists and hospitals
23 Units in the Metric System (SI units) length meter mvolume liter Lmass gram gtemperature Celsius °C
24 In every measurement there is a Unit from measuring device Stating a MeasurementIn every measurement there is aNumberfollowed by aUnit from measuring device
25 Questions???? A. The patient’s temperature is 55°C. What is the SI unit of measurement in each of the following examples?A. The patient’s temperature is 55°C.B. The sack holds 5 decagrams of potatoes.C. It is 8 kilometers from your house to school.D. The bottle holds 2 L of orange soda.
26 SolutionA. °C (degrees Celsius)B. dagC. kilometersD. L (liters)
27 Learning Check Identify the measurement in SI units. A. John’s height is1) 1.5 yards 2) 6 feet 3) 2 metersB. The volume of saline in the IV bottle is1) 1 liters 2) 1 quart 3) 2 pintsC. The mass of a lemon is1) 12 ounces 2) 145 grams 3) 0.6 pounds
28 Solution A. John’s height is 3) 2 meters B. The volume of saline in the IV bottle is1) 1 literC. The mass of a lemon is2) 145 grams
35 Examples Observations That plant is extremely wilted. The car stopped runningThe Reds are leading their divisionInferencesThat plant is extremely wilted due to a lack of water.The car stooped running because it was out of gas.The Reds are leading their division because they are playing well right now.
36 More examples What observations can we make about this picture? What can we infer based on this picture?
37 Look at these two sets of animal tracks. List 3 OBSERVATIONSMake an INFERENCE
38 Now what do you think?Make 3 OBSERVATIONSMake an INFERENCE
39 Now what do you think?Make 3 OBSERVATIONSMake an INFERENCE
40 Target 5: Identify the control and experimental groups in an experiment.
41 Control GroupIn a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.
42 All experiments should have a control group. The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.All experiments should have a control group.
43 Control GroupBecause his grandmother always used 50g of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.
44 Write down 5 observations and 2 inferences based on the photo below.