11 Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.
12 The Control VariableThe experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not affect the outcome.Those factors are called control variables.
13 What is the Purpose of a Control? Controls are NOT being testedControls are used for COMPARISON
14 Other VariablesThe factor that is changed is known as the independent variable.The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
15 Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
16 What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Varying the route is the independent variableThe time it takes is the dependent variableKeeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
17 One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable.
19 Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groupsThere should be only one variable
20 Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative
21 Data Quantitative Qualitative Deals with numbers. Data which can be measured.Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc.Quantitative → Quantity Deals with descriptions.Data can be observed but not measured.Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc.Qualitative → Quality
22 Data Quantitative Qualitative Example: Latte Example: Latte 12 ounces of latteserving temperature 150º F.serving cup 7 inches in heightcost $4.95Example: Latterobust aromafrothy appearancestrong tasteburgundy cup
23 DataMust be organizedCan be organized into charts, tables, or graphs
24 ConclusionThe answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment
25 In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested.
27 Solving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion7) Retest
28 One way to remember it….. People (Problem) Often (Observation) Hear (Hypothesis)Every (Experiment)Dark (Data)Cloud (Conclusion)Rains (Retest)