Presentation on theme: "Earth as a System (Sect 1-2 & 1-4). Satellite image of ash cloud being spewed from fissure in Chile’s Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Range, June 7, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Earth as a System (Sect 1-2 & 1-4)
Satellite image of ash cloud being spewed from fissure in Chile’s Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Range, June 7, 2011
A system is an organized group of related objects or components that work independently and interact to create a whole. Systems have matter and energy that flow freely through the system. Matter is not part of this exchange. How matter and energy are transferred determines whether the system is closed or open. A closed system is a system where only energy is transferred or exchanged with its surroundings. A. System
As a closed system, the jar of tea does not share matter with its surroundings. Energy, in the form of light, can enter. Energy can leave, too, as heat passes out through the glass walls of the jar. But if the jar is tipped over, the tea stays in. Example of a Closed System
An open system includes the transfer and exchange of both matter and energy with the system's surroundings. A. System An example of a open system: The jar of iced tea would become an open system if the lid of the jar were to be removed, allowing some of the tea to evaporate. If a lemon slice were added, new matter would enter the system.
B. Earth’s Major Spheres Atmosphere HydrosphereGeosphere Biosphere All Air, gases All Liquid/Frozen WaterAll Rock material All Living Things
Thin gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth Approximately 100 km above the Earth’s surface. The Atmosphere Provides: Air we breath Protection (solar heat and radiation) Energy exchanged between space, atmosphere and Earth’s surface produce weather and climate. C. Atmosphere
Geosphere is divided into 3 main parts based on composition of material (Crust,Mantle Core): D. The Geosphere
Crust: – Continental (thicker less dense) – Oceanic (thinner, more dense) D. The Geosphere
Mantle: – Lithosphere = crust + uppermost rigid mantle – Asthenosphere = upper mantle that is softer, flows – Lower mantle = also called mesosphere C. The Geosphere
Core: made of iron and nickel – Outer core (liquid), causes magnetic field – Inner Core (solid): even though hotter, pressure too high for liquid state) D. The Geosphere
The surface of Earth is covered with plates: D. The Geosphere Plate Tectonics: Theory (i.e., an explanation) as to why continents have moved and the occurrence of EQs and volcanic eruptions. Constructive and destructive process
Includes all life on Earth Extends from the ocean floor upward into the atmosphere. Living things form ecological communities called biomes. Examples of biomes include: Deserts Grasslands Tropical Rainforests
All of the Earth’s water makes up the hydrosphere. Water is continually moving Evaporation Precipitation Running Water (i.e. streams and rivers) Oceans account for 97%. Fresh water accounts for 3% Groundwater, streams, lakes and glaciers Sustaining life Creates Earths Features Availability of fresh water determines where many organisms can live.
Atmosphere HydrosphereGeosphere Biosphere Spheres are interconnected and interdependent Soil is an interface between all of these
The Sun (light) drives external processes that occur in atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere G. Earth as a System
Humans can alter the system as well. Environmental Science: focuses on relationships between people and natural world. Resources that society depends on are formed by natural processes on Earth – Water, soil, metal and nonmetal minerals (ores), and energy H. People and The Environment Sample from a zinc ore mine in Franklain, NJ
H. People and The Environment Renewable Resources Replenished over short time Ex: plants/animals for food, natural fibers, forest products for lumber and paper Energy: flowing water, wind, solar energy Nonrenewable Resources Replenished only over VERY long time periods because process to create is SLOW Ex: Aluminum, Copper (though these can recycle) Energy: fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, coal
H. People and The Environment Population How long will supplies of basic resources last??? /www/popclock.html As population increases, so does demand for resources. Especially as world societies become developed.