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Earth as a System (Sect 1-2 & 1-4).

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Presentation on theme: "Earth as a System (Sect 1-2 & 1-4)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth as a System (Sect 1-2 & 1-4)

2 Satellite image of ash cloud being spewed from fissure in Chile’s Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Range, June 7, 2011

3 Systems have matter and energy that flow freely through the system.
A. System A system is an organized group of related objects or components that work independently and interact to create a whole. Systems have matter and energy that flow freely through the system. How matter and energy are transferred determines whether the system is closed or open. A closed system is a system where only energy is transferred or exchanged with its surroundings. Matter is not part of this exchange.

4 A. System Example of a Closed System Energy, in the form of light, can enter. Energy can leave, too, as heat passes out through the glass walls of the jar. But if the jar is tipped over, the tea stays in. As a closed system, the jar of tea does not share matter with its surroundings.

5 A. System An open system includes the transfer and exchange of both matter and energy with the system's surroundings. An example of a open system: The jar of iced tea would become an open system if the lid of the jar were to be removed, allowing some of the tea to evaporate. If a lemon slice were added, new matter would enter the system.

6 B. Earth’s Major Spheres
Atmosphere Biosphere All Air, gases All Living Things Geosphere Hydrosphere All Rock material All Liquid/Frozen Water

7 C. Atmosphere

8 C. Atmosphere Thin gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth Approximately 100 km above the Earth’s surface. The Atmosphere Provides: Air we breath Protection (solar heat and radiation) Energy exchanged between space, atmosphere and Earth’s surface produce weather and climate.


10 D. The Geosphere Geosphere is divided into 3 main parts based on composition of material (Crust,Mantle Core):

11 Crust: D. The Geosphere Continental (thicker less dense)
Oceanic (thinner, more dense)

12 Mantle: C. The Geosphere Lithosphere = crust + uppermost rigid mantle
Asthenosphere = upper mantle that is softer, flows Lower mantle = also called mesosphere

13 Core: made of iron and nickel
D. The Geosphere Core: made of iron and nickel Outer core (liquid), causes magnetic field Inner Core (solid): even though hotter, pressure too high for liquid state)

14 The surface of Earth is covered with plates:
D. The Geosphere The surface of Earth is covered with plates: Plate Tectonics: Theory (i.e., an explanation) as to why continents have moved and the occurrence of EQs and volcanic eruptions. Constructive and destructive process

15 E. Biosphere

16 E. Biosphere Includes all life on Earth Extends from the ocean floor upward into the atmosphere. Living things form ecological communities called biomes. Examples of biomes include: Deserts Grasslands Tropical Rainforests

17 F. Hydrosphere

18 F. Hydrosphere All of the Earth’s water makes up the hydrosphere. Water is continually moving Evaporation Precipitation Running Water (i.e. streams and rivers) Oceans account for 97% . Fresh water accounts for 3% Groundwater, streams, lakes and glaciers Sustaining life Creates Earths Features Availability of fresh water determines where many organisms can live.

19 F. Hydrosphere

20 Atmosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere
Spheres are interconnected and interdependent Soil is an interface between all of these

21 G. Earth as a System The Sun (light) drives external processes that occur in atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere

22 H. People and The Environment
Humans can alter the system as well. Environmental Science: focuses on relationships between people and natural world. Resources that society depends on are formed by natural processes on Earth Water, soil, metal and nonmetal minerals (ores), and energy Sample from a zinc ore mine in Franklain, NJ

23 H. People and The Environment
Renewable Resources Replenished over short time Ex: plants/animals for food, natural fibers, forest products for lumber and paper Energy: flowing water, wind, solar energy Nonrenewable Resources Replenished only over VERY long time periods because process to create is SLOW Ex: Aluminum, Copper (though these can recycle) Energy: fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, coal

24 H. People and The Environment
Population How long will supplies of basic resources last??? As population increases, so does demand for resources. Especially as world societies become developed.

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