2Satellite image of ash cloud being spewed from fissure in Chile’s Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Range, June 7, 2011
3Systems have matter and energy that flow freely through the system. A. SystemA system is an organized group of related objects or components that work independently and interact to create a whole.Systems have matter and energy that flow freely through the system.How matter and energy are transferred determines whether the system is closed or open.A closed system is a system where only energy is transferred or exchanged with its surroundings.Matter is not part of this exchange.
4A. SystemExample of a Closed SystemEnergy, in the form oflight, can enter.Energy can leave, too, asheat passes out throughthe glass walls of the jar.But if the jar is tippedover, the tea stays in.As a closed system, thejar of tea does not sharematter with its surroundings.
5A. SystemAn open system includes the transfer and exchange of both matter and energy with the system's surroundings.An example of a open system: The jar of iced tea would become an open system if the lid of the jar were to be removed, allowing some of the tea to evaporate. If a lemon slice were added, new matter would enter the system.
6B. Earth’s Major Spheres AtmosphereBiosphereAll Air, gasesAll Living ThingsGeosphereHydrosphereAll Rock materialAll Liquid/Frozen Water
8C. AtmosphereThin gaseous envelope that surrounds the EarthApproximately 100 km above the Earth’s surface.The Atmosphere Provides:Air we breathProtection (solar heat and radiation)Energy exchanged between space, atmosphere and Earth’s surface produce weather and climate.
10D. The GeosphereGeosphere is divided into 3 main parts based on composition of material (Crust,Mantle Core):
11Crust: D. The Geosphere Continental (thicker less dense) Oceanic (thinner, more dense)
12Mantle: C. The Geosphere Lithosphere = crust + uppermost rigid mantle Asthenosphere = upper mantle that is softer, flowsLower mantle = also called mesosphere
13Core: made of iron and nickel D. The GeosphereCore: made of iron and nickelOuter core (liquid), causes magnetic fieldInner Core (solid): even though hotter, pressure too high for liquid state)
14The surface of Earth is covered with plates: D. The GeosphereThe surface of Earth is covered with plates:Plate Tectonics: Theory (i.e., an explanation) as to why continents have moved and the occurrence of EQs and volcanic eruptions.Constructive and destructive process
16E. BiosphereIncludes all life on EarthExtends from the ocean floor upward into the atmosphere.Living things form ecological communities called biomes.Examples of biomes include:DesertsGrasslandsTropical Rainforests
18F. HydrosphereAll of the Earth’s water makes up the hydrosphere.Water is continually movingEvaporationPrecipitationRunning Water (i.e. streams and rivers)Oceans account for 97% .Fresh water accounts for 3%Groundwater, streams, lakes and glaciersSustaining lifeCreates Earths FeaturesAvailability of fresh water determines where many organisms can live.
20Atmosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere Spheres are interconnected and interdependentSoil is an interface between all of these
21G. Earth as a SystemThe Sun (light) drives external processes that occur in atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere
22H. People and The Environment Humans can alter the system as well.Environmental Science: focuses on relationships between people and natural world.Resources that society depends on are formed by natural processes on EarthWater, soil, metal and nonmetal minerals (ores), and energySample from a zinc ore mine in Franklain, NJ
23H. People and The Environment Renewable ResourcesReplenished over short timeEx: plants/animals for food, natural fibers, forest products for lumber and paperEnergy: flowing water, wind, solar energyNonrenewable ResourcesReplenished only over VERY long time periods because process to create is SLOWEx: Aluminum, Copper (though these can recycle)Energy: fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, coal
24H. People and The Environment PopulationHow long will supplies of basic resources last???As population increases, so does demand for resources. Especially as world societies become developed.