Presentation on theme: "Current Status of INSAT Meteorological Satellites Dr.V.Rajeswara Rao Scientist-E (Operations) Satellite Meteorology Division India Meteorological Department."— Presentation transcript:
Current Status of INSAT Meteorological Satellites Dr.V.Rajeswara Rao Scientist-E (Operations) Satellite Meteorology Division India Meteorological Department New Delhi, INDIA
Introduction Introduction INSAT (Indian National Satellite) Program was started in late seventies to provide services to Meteorology, Telecommunication & Television Broadcast All INSAT Satellites are geostationary, multi-purpose (except KALPANA-1)and 3-axis stabilized systems. All these satellite are controlled and monitored by Master Control Facility (MCF), ISRO situated at Hassan, near Bangalore, India.
The first satellite INSAT-1A was launched on 10th April, 1982. The India Meteorological Department processed the first earth image transmitted by INSAT-1A successfully with the ground reception system installed at IMD Head Quarter, New Delhi. Since then India Meteorological Department is involved in receiving and processing data from INSAT-1, INSAT-2 and INSAT-3 series of satellites and different products generated and used for forecasting purposes.
Current Status of INSAT Meteorological Satellites Currently there are two INSAT satellites in operation KALPANA-1 INSAT-3A KALPANA-1 is an exclusive meteorological satellite launched in September, 2002 and positioned at 74ºE by PSLV-C4 from India.
Originally named METSAT-1. Renamed as KALPANA-1 after Kalpana Chawla who perished in the space shuttle Columbia. KALPANA-1 is currently working in inclined orbit with an inclination of 1.5 deg INSAT-3A is a multi purpose satellite launched in April 2003 and positioned at 93.5ºE by European Ariane. Both the satellite will transmit the VHRR data at the rate 526kbps
KALPANA-1 Payloads It has two payloads for Meteorological Purposes 1.Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) 2.Data Relay Transponder (DRT).
S. No PayloadChannelSpectral Bandwidth Resolution 1.VHRRVisible 0.55 - 0.75 µm 2 Km. x 2 Km. Infrared 10.5 - 12.5 µm 8 Km. x 8 Km. Water Vapour 5.7 - 7.1 µm 8 Km. x 8 Km. Characteristics of VHRR Characteristics of VHRR DRT is used to transmit and receive data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS)
Modes of Operations There are three Modes of Operation for VHRR payload. 1.Full Frame Mode 2.Normal Frame Mode 3.Sector Scan Mode The scan coverage in East-West is 20deg in all modes where as North-South coverage will vary depending upon the mode..
The full frame mode is 20deg in both N-S and E-W direction and takes 33 minutes and number of lines will be 1560. The normal mode covers a range of 14deg in N-S direction and 20deg in E-W direction and takes 23 minutes and number of lines will be 1092. The sector scan mode which is useful for tracking the synoptic systems like thunderstorms etc. covers a range of 4.5 deg in N-S direction ( selectable) and 20deg in E-W direction takes 7minutes ( 3 scans in 23 minutes) and number of lines will be 351. Presently this satellite is providing half hourly normal scans round the clock.
Normal Mode Scans KALPANA-1 Visible Infrared Water vapour
INSAT-3A Payloads It has three payloads for Meteorological Purposes 1.Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) 2.Charged Coupled Device (CCD) 3.Data Relay Transponder (DRT).
S. No PayloadChannelSpectral Bandwidth Resolution 1.VHRRVisible 0.55 - 0.75 µm 2 Km. x 2 Km. Infrared 10.5 - 12.5 µm 8 Km. x 8 Km. Water Vapour 5.7 - 7.1 µm 8 Km. x 8 Km. INSAT-3A DRT is currently in use to transmit and receive data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) The characteristics & modes of Operations of INSAT-3A VHRR Payload are exactly similar to KALPANA-1
Full Frame Mode Scans INSAT-3A Visible Infrared Water Vapour
ChannelsSpectral RangeResolution Visible0.63 - 0.69 µm1 Km. NIR0.77 - 0.86 µm1 Km. SWIR1.55 - 1.69 µm1 Km. INSAT-3A CCD Payload INSAT-3A CCD Payload
Modes of Operation for CCD payload There are two Modes of Operation for CCD payload. 1. Normal Mode 2. Program mode The coverage in the normal mode will be 10 deg. Both in East-West and North-South directions where as in the Program mode 1 to 25 lines, each covering 0.395 deg. In the North-South direction and 10deg. In East-West direction. Currently IMD is processing hourly images during day time only.
Derivation of Geo Physical Parameters Using the imagery data of these two satellites, IMD is also deriving the following geo physical parameters routinely. Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Upper Tropospheric Humidity (UTH) Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)