Presentation on theme: "Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change"— Presentation transcript:
1Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change A Collaborative Approach for a Green FutureChris LyleRepresentative of the World Tourism Organization to ICAOMontréal, 15 May 2013
2Why tourism? Employs 1 in 12 people worldwide Represents directly 5% of global GDPMultiplier effect > impact in many other sectorsContributes 30% of worldwide service exportsDiversification of economy / tax revenuesDevelopment/regeneration of regions
3Tourism and development International tourism:Redistribution of wealth between and within countriesEarning foreign currency / improving balance of paymentsOften the only practical resource for many least developed, landlocked and small island developing countriesEffective means of alleviating poverty and empowering local communitiesOne billion international tourists in 2012,spending 1.3 trillion dollars!
4International tourism and air passenger transport Locked at the hip:Over half of international tourist arrivals globally are now by air (with much higher proportions for long-haul and island destinations)International air passengers are predominantly tourists (business and leisure travellers)
5Tourism Climate change Tourism a highly climate-sensitive sectorClimate change not a remote future event for tourism, varied impacts becoming evident at destinationsImpacts of climate change on the tourism sector are expected steadily to intensifyChanging climate patterns might alter major tourism flowsLeast developed countries and small island developing states might be particularly affectedAt the same time, the tourism sector is a contributor to climate change.
8Tourism and climate change adaptation Partially operating ski area near Salzburg, Austria: Mid-January 2007 (Photo credit: Beatrice Stadel)
9Tourism and climate change mitigation Global travel and tourism emissions (including domestic):Sub-sectorsAir transport40%Car transport32%Other transport3%Accommodation21%Activities4%Total travel and tourism100%Travel and tourism contribution to world emissions5%Transportationof Tourists = 75%of Sector Emissions“Climate Change and Tourism:Responding to Global Challenges”eCLAT, September 2007
10‘Business as Usual’ projection of future CO2 emissions from travel and tourism*53%15%24%40%32%21%-also shows how the proportional contribution of emissions from sub-sectors… with air travel, accommodations, and activities growing contributions and car travel declining4% %* Excluding same-day visitors“Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges”, eCLAT, September 2007
11Tourism and climate change mitigation GHG emissions from travel and tourism are estimated to contribute about 5% in terms of global CO2 emissionsAir transport accounts for an estimated 40% of the travel and tourism contribution of CO2Air transport accounts for an estimated 60% of the international travel and tourism contribution of CO2, and is overwhelmingly dominant at medium- and long-haul
12Tourism and climate change mitigation “While there are many options to reduce emissions [in the tourism sector], by far the greatest potential is related to air travel”“Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges”, eCLAT, September 2007While every effort continues to be taken by UNWTO, tourism administrations and industry in local transport, accommodation, activities, etc , mitigation of air transport emissions is critical
13The Davos Declaration on Climate Change and TourismConclusion of Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism convened in 2007 in Davos by UNWTO, UNEP and WMO, with support of WEF and input on aviation from ICAO, essentially:Climate is a key tourism resource but tourism is also a contributor to climate changeTourism is a vital economic factor and contributor to the MDGsAdopt urgent policies to encourage sustainable development: economic, social, environmental and climate change responsivenessHow to do it?Mitigate emissions in transport, in co-operation with ICAO and other aviation organizations, and accommodation)Adapt businesses and destinations to changingclimate conditionsNew technologyHelp poorer regions adapting
14The Davos process2007Second International Conference in DavosTourism Ministerial Summit on Tourism and Climate Change in LondonUNWTO General Assembly in Cartagena de IndiasUNFCCC in Bali (COP/13)2008Regional conference and workshopTourism Ministerial Summit in LondonUNFCCC in Poznan (COP/14)2009Regional symposia and workshopWorld Climate Conference-3 in GenevaUNWTO General Assembly in AstanaUNFCCC in Copenhagen (COP/15)2003First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism in Djerba
15The Davos process 2011 2012 2013 2010 Regional conference and workshop UNCED (Rio+20) in Rio de JaneiroUNWTO General Assembly in GyeongjuUNFCCC in Durban (COP/17)2012International conference on Tourism, Climate Change and Sustainability in BournemouthUNFCCC in Doha (COP/18)2013UNWTO General Assembly in Victoria FallsICAO Assembly in MontréalUNFCCC in Warsaw (COP/19)2010UNFCCC in Cancún (COP/16)
16From Davos to BaliAdaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism sectorLow carbon travelI think its fair to say that UNWTO has played a central role in the changes to dateWith UNEP and WMO initially in 2003 in Djerba and subsequently with global partners like World Economic Forum in Davos in and regionally with the European Travel Commission this month in Gothenburg.Identifying the issues; advancing the science: engaging the stakeholders and pushing the envelope forward.We also plug into the UN system which is clearly the emerging international default system for responding to global mega crises.We are of course not the only ones and there is a clear leadership role in aviation from ICAO and IATA or in hospitality and cruises by their own sectoral leadershipT&T in the Green EconomyCC Adaptation & MitigationCC and Tourism: Responding to Global ChallengesCC & Tourism. DjerbaCopenhagen MDG16
17UNWTO’s message at UNFCCC on mitigation Tourism community will participate in common UN effortTourism is ready to take up its share of the mitigation burdenHowever, do not target tourism unfairly - tourism generates wealth, creates jobs and contributes to the alleviation of povertyPoor countries will be doubly affected if we deprive them of the economic and social contribution of tourism
18Travel and tourism industry contribution to mitigation Aspiration to reduce total (including air transport) CO2 emissions by 2035 by no less than 50% from 2005 levelsInterim target of reducing CO2 emissions by 25% by 2020 (30% if early international - UNFCCC plus ICAO - agreement in place)Source: WTTC, representing major travel and tourism companies, “Leading the Challenge on Climate Change” and engaging wider industry (including SMEs, estimated to represent 80% of travel and tourism activity worldwide)
19The air transport contribution to mitigation Air transport global ratio CO2 percent/direct GDP percent 2:1Growth in air transport is likely to outpace technical and operational improvements for the foreseeable future (by reduced margin if biofuels fulfil their promise)
20The air transport contribution in context Aviation’s value is in delivering social and economic goods and servicesTravel and tourism (including air transport) global ratio CO2 percent/direct GDP percent 1:1 (cf air transport 2:1)Think in a larger box - engage collectively and collegially within UN framework and with industry and NGO’s (IATA, WTTC, WEF, etc)
21ICAO/UNWTO co-operation 1978: Working Arrangement on “co-operation in fields of common interest”2003: UNWTO becomes a Specialized Agency of the UN (cf ICAO)2007: ICAO contributes to Davos conference2010: MoC specifically includes “Sustainable development, including environmental protection, mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change”2013: Joint Statement includes reference to working together for “Contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and tourism”
22ICAO/UNWTO co-operation Ongoing: Reciprocal participation in UNFCCC side events and presentations of papers, cross-publication of articles in house media2008: UNWTO access to GIACC website and written submission to GIACC2010: UNWTO participation in ICAO Colloquium on Aviation and Climate Change2010: UNWTO presentation to ICAO Assembly of "Statement regarding mitigation of Greenhouse Gas emissions from air passenger transport” (A37-WP/174, EX/31)
23ICAO/UNWTO co-operation UNWTO Statement is still valid and the Organization remains fully committed to providing a tourism perspective to ICAO’s on-going policy analysis and debate, notably as regards market-based GreenHouse Gas mitigation measures (specifically on alleviation of negative impacts on critical tourism destinations and earmarking/recycling of revenues to mutual tourism/aviation benefit).