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Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change

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Presentation on theme: "Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change
A Collaborative Approach for a Green Future Chris Lyle Representative of the World Tourism Organization to ICAO Montréal, 15 May 2013

2 Why tourism? Employs 1 in 12 people worldwide
Represents directly 5% of global GDP Multiplier effect > impact in many other sectors Contributes 30% of worldwide service exports Diversification of economy / tax revenues Development/regeneration of regions

3 Tourism and development
International tourism: Redistribution of wealth between and within countries Earning foreign currency / improving balance of payments Often the only practical resource for many least developed, landlocked and small island developing countries Effective means of alleviating poverty and empowering local communities One billion international tourists in 2012, spending 1.3 trillion dollars!

4 International tourism and air passenger transport
Locked at the hip: Over half of international tourist arrivals globally are now by air (with much higher proportions for long-haul and island destinations) International air passengers are predominantly tourists (business and leisure travellers)

5 Tourism Climate change
Tourism a highly climate-sensitive sector Climate change not a remote future event for tourism, varied impacts becoming evident at destinations Impacts of climate change on the tourism sector are expected steadily to intensify Changing climate patterns might alter major tourism flows Least developed countries and small island developing states might be particularly affected At the same time, the tourism sector is a contributor to climate change.

6 Tourism vulnerability ‘Hotspots’ (IPCC/eCLAT )
Regional Knowledge Gaps

7 Tourism and climate change
Climate-related risks require adaptation Climate change causes require mitigation

8 Tourism and climate change adaptation
Partially operating ski area near Salzburg, Austria: Mid-January 2007 (Photo credit: Beatrice Stadel)

9 Tourism and climate change mitigation
Global travel and tourism emissions (including domestic): Sub-sectors Air transport 40% Car transport 32% Other transport 3% Accommodation 21% Activities 4% Total travel and tourism 100% Travel and tourism contribution to world emissions 5% Transportation of Tourists = 75% of Sector Emissions “Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges” eCLAT, September 2007

10 ‘Business as Usual’ projection of
future CO2 emissions from travel and tourism* 53% 15% 24% 40% 32% 21% -also shows how the proportional contribution of emissions from sub-sectors … with air travel, accommodations, and activities growing contributions and car travel declining 4% % * Excluding same-day visitors “Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges”, eCLAT, September 2007

11 Tourism and climate change mitigation
GHG emissions from travel and tourism are estimated to contribute about 5% in terms of global CO2 emissions Air transport accounts for an estimated 40% of the travel and tourism contribution of CO2 Air transport accounts for an estimated 60% of the international travel and tourism contribution of CO2, and is overwhelmingly dominant at medium- and long-haul

12 Tourism and climate change mitigation
“While there are many options to reduce emissions [in the tourism sector], by far the greatest potential is related to air travel” “Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges”, eCLAT, September 2007 While every effort continues to be taken by UNWTO, tourism administrations and industry in local transport, accommodation, activities, etc , mitigation of air transport emissions is critical

13 The Davos Declaration on Climate Change
and Tourism Conclusion of Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism convened in 2007 in Davos by UNWTO, UNEP and WMO, with support of WEF and input on aviation from ICAO, essentially: Climate is a key tourism resource but tourism is also a contributor to climate change Tourism is a vital economic factor and contributor to the MDGs Adopt urgent policies to encourage sustainable development: economic, social, environmental and climate change responsiveness How to do it? Mitigate emissions in transport, in co-operation with ICAO and other aviation organizations, and accommodation) Adapt businesses and destinations to changing climate conditions New technology Help poorer regions adapting

14 The Davos process 2007 Second International Conference in Davos Tourism Ministerial Summit on Tourism and Climate Change in London UNWTO General Assembly in Cartagena de Indias UNFCCC in Bali (COP/13) 2008 Regional conference and workshop Tourism Ministerial Summit in London UNFCCC in Poznan (COP/14) 2009 Regional symposia and workshop World Climate Conference-3 in Geneva UNWTO General Assembly in Astana UNFCCC in Copenhagen (COP/15) 2003 First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism in Djerba

15 The Davos process 2011 2012 2013 2010 Regional conference and workshop
UNCED (Rio+20) in Rio de Janeiro UNWTO General Assembly in Gyeongju UNFCCC in Durban (COP/17) 2012 International conference on Tourism, Climate Change and Sustainability in Bournemouth UNFCCC in Doha (COP/18) 2013 UNWTO General Assembly in Victoria Falls ICAO Assembly in Montréal UNFCCC in Warsaw (COP/19) 2010 UNFCCC in Cancún (COP/16)

16 From Davos to Bali Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism sector Low carbon travel I think its fair to say that UNWTO has played a central role in the changes to date With UNEP and WMO initially in 2003 in Djerba and subsequently with global partners like World Economic Forum in Davos in and regionally with the European Travel Commission this month in Gothenburg. Identifying the issues; advancing the science: engaging the stakeholders and pushing the envelope forward. We also plug into the UN system which is clearly the emerging international default system for responding to global mega crises. We are of course not the only ones and there is a clear leadership role in aviation from ICAO and IATA or in hospitality and cruises by their own sectoral leadership T&T in the Green Economy CC Adaptation & Mitigation CC and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges CC & Tourism. Djerba Copenhagen MDG 16

17 UNWTO’s message at UNFCCC on mitigation
Tourism community will participate in common UN effort Tourism is ready to take up its share of the mitigation burden However, do not target tourism unfairly - tourism generates wealth, creates jobs and contributes to the alleviation of poverty Poor countries will be doubly affected if we deprive them of the economic and social contribution of tourism

18 Travel and tourism industry contribution to mitigation
Aspiration to reduce total (including air transport) CO2 emissions by 2035 by no less than 50% from 2005 levels Interim target of reducing CO2 emissions by 25% by 2020 (30% if early international - UNFCCC plus ICAO - agreement in place) Source: WTTC, representing major travel and tourism companies, “Leading the Challenge on Climate Change” and engaging wider industry (including SMEs, estimated to represent 80% of travel and tourism activity worldwide)

19 The air transport contribution to mitigation
Air transport global ratio CO2 percent/direct GDP percent 2:1 Growth in air transport is likely to outpace technical and operational improvements for the foreseeable future (by reduced margin if biofuels fulfil their promise)

20 The air transport contribution in context
Aviation’s value is in delivering social and economic goods and services Travel and tourism (including air transport) global ratio CO2 percent/direct GDP percent 1:1 (cf air transport 2:1) Think in a larger box - engage collectively and collegially within UN framework and with industry and NGO’s (IATA, WTTC, WEF, etc)

21 ICAO/UNWTO co-operation
1978: Working Arrangement on “co-operation in fields of common interest” 2003: UNWTO becomes a Specialized Agency of the UN (cf ICAO) 2007: ICAO contributes to Davos conference 2010: MoC specifically includes “Sustainable development, including environmental protection, mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change” 2013: Joint Statement includes reference to working together for “Contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and tourism”

22 ICAO/UNWTO co-operation
Ongoing: Reciprocal participation in UNFCCC side events and presentations of papers, cross-publication of articles in house media 2008: UNWTO access to GIACC website and written submission to GIACC 2010: UNWTO participation in ICAO Colloquium on Aviation and Climate Change 2010: UNWTO presentation to ICAO Assembly of "Statement regarding mitigation of Greenhouse Gas emissions from air passenger transport” (A37-WP/174, EX/31)

23 ICAO/UNWTO co-operation
UNWTO Statement is still valid and the Organization remains fully committed to providing a tourism perspective to ICAO’s on-going policy analysis and debate, notably as regards market-based GreenHouse Gas mitigation measures (specifically on alleviation of negative impacts on critical tourism destinations and earmarking/recycling of revenues to mutual tourism/aviation benefit).

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