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© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. Chapter One: Alcohol McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-2 Points for consideration History of alcohol use Theories to explain use Views of alcohol problems Response to alcohol problems in US Public policy issues
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-3 Alcohol Alcohol a product of fermentation Sugar in plants + yeast alcohol 15% alcohol highest strength naturally Distillation produces higher concentration
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-4 History of alcohol History of alcohol Evidence of alcohol in Neolithic times linked to early agriculture Alcohol in the classical period beverage medication libation foster spiritual life Introduction of distillation, 10th century allows strength up to 93%
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-5 Early history of alcohol in US arrived on Mayflower Spanish missioners brought grape vines 1640, first distillery on Staten Island drinking accepted in early colonies
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-6 Theories to explain drinking Central question: “Why is alcohol used” Answers: “Because alcohol... reduces anxiety for individuals and societies promotes feelings of power alters consciousness expectations and myths
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-7 Views of alcohol problems alcohol use accompanied by problems recurrent themes alcohol problems as a sin or moral failing alcohol problems as a legal issue confusion between drunkenness and alcoholism
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-8 U.S. response to alcohol problems In early days of U.S. drinking primarily family centered Settling of western — drinking moved outside the home Changes in drinking patterns led to political action the “wets” versus “drys”
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.1-9 U.S. response to alcohol problems (cont.) Temperance movement initially not anti-alcohol initially anti-liquor broad social movement included social programs Prohibition swallowed up temperance 0 %
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 1- 10 U.S. response to alcohol problems (cont.) Prohibition movements political parties fraternal orders WCTU 18th Amendment (prohibition) 1919 - 1933 far-reaching impact
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 1- 11 Early treatment responses Drunkenness versus inebriety how to distinguish between these ? Historically some points where seen as different Alcoholism a modern concept
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 1- 12 U.S. landmarks in alcohol treatment Benjamin Rush-1st Surgeon general Hospitalization- 1830s Washingtonian- self-help initiative, Societyfounded in 1841 AA-formed in 1935 Yale efforts- late 1930s NIAAA-founded in 1971
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 1- 13 U.S. public policy on alcohol NIAAA formed Emergence of treatment professionals Prevention efforts initiated Insurance coverage Lobby groups around — underage drinking, DWI, advertising
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