Presentation on theme: "Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 8: The U.S. Navy and American Imperialism, 1898-1914."— Presentation transcript:
Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 8: The U.S. Navy and American Imperialism,
Learning Objectives Know the influence of the mass media in U.S. relations with Spain and the effect of the destruction of the U.S.S. Maine on public opinion. Comprehend the impact of Mahanian doctrine on the naval strategy and thinking in preparation for and conduct of the war. Comprehend the reasons for the acceleration of U.S. Navy expansion following the war with Spain.
Learning Objectives Know the effect of the Progressive Era in domestic politics on the Navy. Comprehend the threats and resultant actions taken by the U.S. concerning activities in the Pacific and Caribbean during the period
The Spanish-American War
Causes Decreased isolationism in U.S. public and Congress Cuban Revolution ( ): – U.S. investments threatened – Spanish authorities commit atrocities against Cuban civilians – Sympathetic to Cubans
The Fuze USS Maine Explosion - February 1898: – Havana, Cuba. – Mission — protect U.S. citizens and property. – U.S. public angered - blame placed on Spain. “Free Cuba!” “Remember the Maine!” President William McKinley – Congress declares war on Spain -- April 1898.
USS Maine Havana, Cuba February 1898
Fighting the War Geography – Spanish Empire- Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam – U.S. strategic interests Panama Canal, Hawaii U.S forces – Atlantic: Sampson/Schley – Asiatic: Dewey (China/Japan)
President William McKinley
Naval Orders of Battle United States – North Atlantic Squadron Sampson based in Key West. Schley’s “Flying Squadron” in Norfolk. USS Oregon sent from Pacific to Atlantic. – Asiatic Squadron Commanded by Commodore George Dewey at Hong Kong. – Sent by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt. Spain – Inferior naval forces. Montojo - Manila Bay Cervera - Cape Verde Islands
Fighting the War Cuba – Blockade of Santiago harbor (1 May) – Amphibious landing at Daiquiri (June 20) – Destruction of Cevera’s Fleet (July 3) Sampson/Schley command controversy Naval Results
Rear Admiral William T. Sampson Commander North Atlantic Squadron
Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley Commander North Atlantic Flying Squadron Spanish-American War
Admiral Pascual Cervera Commander Spanish Fleet Battle of Santiago de Cuba
Battle of Santiago American blockade of Santiago Harbor. – Guantanamo Bay seized by Huntington’s battalion of Marines. Amphibious landing at Daiquiri. – Confusion between Army and Navy: Shafter and Sampson. Rough Riders’ Teddy Roosevelt. – Leads charge at the Battle of San Juan Hill. Spanish governor orders fleet to flee harbor - 1 July – Sampson / Schley command controversy. Results and lessons: – Spanish home fleet recalled while en route to the Philippines – U.S. technological superiority overwhelms Spanish. – U.S. becomes dominant power in the Caribbean Sea. – Improvement needed in fire control and amphibious doctrine.
The “Rough Riders” Battle of San Juan Hill 1 July 1898
USS Oregon Battle of Santiago
Battle of Santiago
Fighting the War Pacific – Philippines: Phase I Dewey’s Descent Spanish Fleet sunk at anchor Dewey national Hero Siege of Manila
Commodore George Dewey Commander U.S. Asiatic Squadron Spanish-American War
Admiral Don Patricio Montojo Commander Spanish Fleet Battle of Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay 1 May 1898 U.S. Asiatic Fleet sails from Hong Kong to Manila. – Dewey orders increased training and gunnery practice. Spanish use shore guns to augment anchored fleet. Dewey: “You may fire when you are ready, Gridley.” – Spanish fleet sunk at anchor. – Superior American gunnery. Dewey becomes a national hero. Siege of Manila follows with Army troops. War against Aguinaldo's Philippine Nationalists. – Philippine Insurrection or Filipino-American War – U.S. establishes control of entire Philippine Archipelago.
Battle of Manila Bay Bataan ManilaManila Bay Philippines Dewey from Hong Kong. MANILA
Battle of Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay “You may fire when ready, Gridley.” - Commodore George Dewey
Captain Charles V. Gridley Commanding Officer USS Olympia Battle of Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay 1 May 1898
Commodore George Dewey Battle of Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay Dewey’s Flagship
Fighting the War Pacific – Philippines: Phase I Dewey’s Descent Spanish Fleet sunk at anchor Dewey national Hero Siege of Manila – Other islands- Wake seized, Guam seized, Hawaii annexed – Philippines: Phase II War against Philippine Nationalists U.S. bogged down
U.S. “Empire” Established From Spain in 1898: – Puerto Rico – Guam – Philippines – Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba (Spain sells other island territories in the Pacific to the German Empire in 1899.) Formerly Independent: – Hawaii (Annexed 1898) – Wake Island – “American” Samoa (Harbor of Pago Pago)
American Pacific Territories Coaling Stations for Ships
U.S. Navy after the War Battle Ships principle warship Mahan's advocacy of fleet engagements vindicated. – Commerce raiding discredited. Construction programs to be completed by 1905: – 10 first-rate battleships. – 4 armored cruisers. Global empire yields: – Overseas bases. – Expanded obligations to protect overseas interests. Dewey heads new Navy General Board. – First U.S. peacetime strategic planning apparatus. – Missions are to devise war plans and assess foreign navies’ capabilities.
Progressive Era Politics ( ) Strong Presidents: – Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. Republican Congress funds battleships and canal construction. – Large increases in federal budget. – Large increase in percentage of federal budget for Department of the Navy. Dewey and General Board – Access to Secretary of the Navy and / or the President on a regular basis due to increased importance of the Navy.
Prewar International Concerns Expanding Interests of Germany, U.S. attention to Caribbean Expanding Interests of Japan, U.S. attention in Pacific
The Caribbean Threat: Germany – U.S. has stake in Caribbean Annexation of Puerto Rico Naval base in Cuba – Germany has strong interest in Latin America – Venezuela Crisis (1902) Germany wants base there Germany (plus Britain, Italy) blockades to recover from default on 12.5 million loan
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine Caribbean Sea – Vital defense of the U.S. - Navy protects access to Panama Canal. European relations with Latin America. – Venezuela Crisis (1902) demonstrates need for U.S. to ensure European powers need not intervene in Western Hemisphere.
“The Big Stick” Theodore Roosevelt (December 1904): – U.S. obligated “in flagrant cases of wrong-doing or impotence (in Latin America) to the exercise of an international police power.” Constant interventions by Navy and Marines: – Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. – Cuba - Platt Amendment. – Vera Cruz, Mexico. “Yankee Imperialism” despised by many Latin Americans.
Panama Canal Renewed U.S. desire for canal in Central America. – Link between Atlantic and Pacific Fleets. Need for the canal is highlighted by USS Oregon’s long transit to the Battle of Santiago. Strong support from President Theodore Roosevelt. – Essentially Mahanian
Panama Canal Panamanian Revolution against Colombia – Engineered and influenced by U.S. – Panama Canal Zone ceded to U.S. Construction of the canal begins in – Completed in Increased importance of U.S. control of Caribbean Sea. – Protection of Panama Canal is vital to defense of the U.S.
U.S. Interests in the Far East War Plan Orange – U.S. Navy plan for war with Japan. – Defense of the Philippines and defeat of the Japanese Navy.
The Open Door U.S. “Open Door” policy in China: – Policy has two aspects. (1) Ensure territorial integrity of China. (2) Ensure free trade in China for all countries. – China’s Boxer Rebellion U.S. Marine Regiment attached to U.S. Army force protecting Westerners. – Counter European and Japanese attempts at “spheres of influence”. Yangtze River Patrol - U.S. gunboats protect American commerce.
The Rise of Japanese Sea Power
Opening and Modernization Commodore M.C. Perry – Treaty of Kanagawa – European powers quickly follow U.S. lead. Meiji Restoration – End of Tokugawa Shogunate’s feudal system. – Emperor restored to power. Increased trade with the West. Rapid modernization of industry and armed forces. Colonial expansion begins on Pacific Islands. Japanese Navy – From the Age of Galleys directly to the Modern Age. – Skips entirely the Age of Sail.
Sino-Japanese War Conflict with China – Ryukus – Taiwan – Korea Japanese make a surprise first strike. – Prior to declaration of war. Battle of the Yalu: – Chinese fleet takes “V” formation. – Japanese divide fleet into two squadrons. Outcome: Expansion of Japanese Empire in East Asia. – Korea – Taiwan (Formosa) and Pescadores – Port Arthur
Battle of the Yalu - 17 September 1894
Admiral Heihachiro Togo
Russo-Japanese War Japan forced to withdraw from Korea and Port Arthur Russian Expansion into the Far East – Trans-Siberian Railway Chinese allow Russian construction through Manchuria. – Russian Naval Base at Vladivostok Port Arthur and Manchuria – Occupied by Russian forces. Korea threatened. Anglo-Japanese Alliance – Attempt by Japan to keep European powers out of the war. Japanese strike first again. Battle of the Yellow Sea.
Russian Battleship Navarin
Japanese Battleship Mikasa
Japanese Battleship Asahi
Japanese Battleship Shikishima
Japanese Armored Cruiser Yakuma
Balance of Power Japan Disadvantages – Number of Troops – Fleet Strength – Natural Resources Advantages – Strategic Center – Multiple Naval Bases – First Strike Russia Advantages – Number of Troops – Fleet Strength – Natural Resources Disadvantages – Division of Forces Three Fleets – Lines of Communication Trans-Siberian RR – Initial Defensive Strategy
Battle of Tsushima Strait Baltic Fleet commanded by Admiral Zinovi Rozhestvenski. – Transit to Vladivostok. – Protection of supply ships. Vice Admiral Heihachiro Togo – Togo “Crosses the T” -- Decisive Japanese victory. Lessons learned: – Rear Admiral Nebogatov - Surrender not an option. – Heavy armor and guns. – Semi-independent divisions. – Dividing the fleet. Treaty of Portsmouth - President Theodore Roosevelt: – Port Arthur and Southern Sakhalin ceded to Japan. – Japan becomes the dominant power in the Far East.
Increases in U.S. Naval Power By 1898 – 4 1st Class Battleships: Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Iowa. – 2 2nd Class Battleships: Texas and Maine. – 2 Armored Cruisers. – 10 Protected Cruisers. – Gunboats, Monitors, Torpedo Boats. Modern technology in the fleet: – Steam, armor, and rifled breech-loading guns.
President Theodore Roosevelt and Rear Admiral Robley D. “Fighting Bob” Evans Prior to the sailing of the Great White Fleet
The Great White Fleet
Route of the Great White Fleet –
Technology Improvements Improved gunnery: – Smokeless powder. HMS Dreadnought – First all “big-gun” battleship launched by Great Britain. – Makes all other battleships obsolete. Battle Cruisers – Same armament as dreadnoughts but less armor. – Faster speeds. Destroyers - Vital part of fleet - protection from torpedoes. Submarines – USS Holland – Diesel engines developed allow greater maneuverability. Radios - Improved communications.
HMS Dreadnought - First all “big gun” Battleship. - Eight 12-inch guns.
Kitty Hawk, North Carolina 17 December 1903 Wright Brothers
USS Birmingham (CL 2) 14 November 1910 Eugene Ely
How it all Started!!!
Dawn of Naval Aviation Wright Brothers -- Kitty Hawk, North Carolina: 1903 Eugene Ely – First flight of an aircraft from a ship in – First landing of an aircraft on a ship in Glenn Curtiss - First seaplane landing Lieutenant “Spuds” Ellyson: Naval Aviator #1. Royal Navy in a similar stage of development in aviation.
Dawn of Naval Aviation Birthday of Naval Aviation: 8 May – U.S. Navy purchases two Curtiss biplanes. Office of Naval Aeronautics established in Early naval aviation missions: – Scouting location of the enemy fleet. – Directing naval gunfire.
Discussion Next time: The U.S. Navy and World War I,