Presentation on theme: "Central Nervous System Disorders Unit II Syllabus"— Presentation transcript:
1Central Nervous System Disorders Unit II Syllabus Welcome to MS Nervous System Unit IICNS Infections & Inflammatory disorders (activity)Increased Intracranial Pressure (PP presentation)Headaches (PP, activity)Traumatic Brain Injury (Worksheets)Brain Tumors & IC Surgery (PP Presentation)Spinal Disorders & Injuries (PP presentation)(Activities 1-3 included in this PP with additional handouts)
2Central Nervous System Disorders What structures do central CNS disorders involve?The CNS is the control center of the bodyCNS disorders can cause symptoms in any part of the body
3CNS Infections Infectious agents can enter the CNS and alter function Two main CNS infections: meningitis & encephalitisObjectivesComplete the CNS activityDiscuss pathophysiologies, S&S, diagnostic tests & treatments associated with meningitus & encephalitis
5Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) ICP = pressure exerted within the cranial cavity.Three components within the cranium affect ICP:Normal ICP:Common causes: intracranial hemorrhage, head trauma, increased amounts of CSF, tumors
6Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) ????Critical Thinking Question????Hyperventilation is known to trigger constriction of cerebral blood vessels. What affect will this have on ICP?
7Increased ICP: Signs & Symptoms Early S&SIrritability & restlessnessNuchal rigidity, headache & vomitingDecreased level of consciousnessSluggish pupil reactionsLate S&SVital sign changesCushing’s response (Cushing’s triad)Widened pulse pressureFixed and dilated pupils
8Increased ICP: Monitoring Three methodsIntraventricularCerebral tissueSubdural or subarachnoid spaceCatheters inserted through burr holesCatheters Transducer Monitor (p Figure 48.3)Require aggressive nursing care
9Increased ICP: Monitoring Class activity: Identify structures A-D
10Increased ICP: Monitoring Intraventricular MonitoringPlacement = lateral ventricleAllows for both pressure monitoring & drainage of CSFP. 1137, figure 48.3Disadvantages: Clotting of catheterInfection
11Increased ICP: Monitoring Subarachnoid Bolt & Intraparenchymal (Brain Tissue) MonitoringP. 1137, figure 48.4 (subarachnoid monitoring)Allows for pressure monitoringCan not remove CSFDisadvantages: Clotting of cathetersInfection
13CNS Disorders: Headache Three types of Headaches1) Tension2) Migrainea) classicb) common3) Cluster
14CNS Disorders: Headaches Most headaches are transient and are not seriousHeadaches are a common symptom of other neurological disordersWhen headaches are persistent or recurrent, they should be evaluatedDiagnosis is based on symptoms and diagnostic procedures are utilized to rule out other disorders
15Headaches: Class Activity Type/classificationCauseSymptomsManagement/TreatmentsTensionDevelop gradually, locations and intensity vary. Described as tight, steady aching , & pressureMigraineClassicCommonProdromal phaseImmediate onsetDietary restrictions, quiet environment nifedipine, propranolol, amitriptyline, ergot (Cafergot) , sumatriptan (Imitrex)ClusterVascular disturbance, stress, anxiety, emotional disturbances
16Closure/Review: CNS Infections, ICP, & Headaches What are early symptoms of increased ICP?Define widened pulse pressureAre opioid analgesics frequently used with neurological disorders? Why or why not?Describe Brudzinski’s & Kernig’s sign.What is the cause of tension headaches? What interventions are utilized with these?What is the pathophysiology of meninigitis?
17Closure/Review: CNS Infections, ICP, & Headaches What type of headache may be preceded by an aura? Describe an aura.Describe the pathophysiology of encephalitisDescribe the therapeutic effect of nifedipine as it relates to migraine headaches.Describe the therapeutic action of sumatriptan (Imitrex) when utilized for the treatment of migraine headaches.