Presentation on theme: "Bacterial Meningitis in Children Dr Rajesh Kumar MD (PGI), DM (Neonatology) PGI, Chandigarh, India Rani Children Hospital, Ranchi."— Presentation transcript:
Bacterial Meningitis in Children Dr Rajesh Kumar MD (PGI), DM (Neonatology) PGI, Chandigarh, India Rani Children Hospital, Ranchi
Inflammatory disease of the leptomeninges –three parts: the pia, arachnoid, and dura maters –Meningitis reflects inflammation of the arachnoid mater and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in both the subarachnoid space and in the cerebral ventricles. Suspected bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency,
Organisms 1 month to 2 years The major causes were S. pneumoniae (45 percent), Neisseria meningitidis (30 percent), and group B streptococcus (18 percent). 2 through 18 years N. meningitidis was the most common cause, accounting for 59 percent of cases, followed by S. pneumoniae (approximately 25 percent) and Hib (approximately 8 percent).
Organisms H influnzae Pneumococcus N meningitidis In <3 months: E.coli, Listeria
Clinical Features Two patterns –Develops progressively over one or several days and may be preceded by a febrile illness. –Acute and fulminant, with manifestations of sepsis and meningitis developing rapidly over several hours. The rapidly progressive form is frequently associated with brain edema
Symptoms Depends upon age –Infants, 1-5 years, >5 years Fever Symptoms and signs of meningeal inflammation (nausea, vomiting, irritability, anorexia, headache, confusion, back pain, and nuchal rigidity)
Clinical features In one review of 1064 cases of acute bacterial meningitis in children older than 1 month, 16 (1.5 percent) had no meningeal signs during their entire period of hospitalization Kernig sign With the hip and knee flexed at 90º, cannot extend the knee more than 135º and/or there is flexion of the opposite knee Brudzinski sign Brudzinski sign is present if the patient, while in the supine position, flexes the lower extremities during attempted passive flexion of the neck Signs of meningeal irritation are present in 60 to 80 percent of children with bacterial meningitis at the time of presentation and in approximately 25 percent of children with normal CSF findings Bulging fontanel was present in 20 percent of infants with meningitis, but also in 13 percent of infants with normal CSF and viral infections other than meningitis
Clinical features Papilledema, which takes several days to become apparent, is an uncommon finding in acute bacterial meningitis. The finding of papilledema should prompt evaluation for venous sinus occlusion, subdural empyema, or brain abscess, TBM Signs of increased intracranial pressure that may occur in bacterial meningitis include palsies of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves Seizures Seizures, typically generalized, occur before admission to the hospital or within the first 48 hours of admission in 20 to 30 percent of patients with meningitis. Seizures later in the course are more often focal and may indicate cerebral injury
Focal findings In one review of 235 children with bacterial meningitis, focal neurologic findings (hemiparesis, quadriparesis, facial palsy, visual field defects) were present at the time of admission in 16 percent of patients overall and in 34 percent of those with pneumococcal meningitis. The presence of focal neurologic signs at the time of admission correlated with persistent abnormal neurologic examination one year after discharge and with cognitive impairment.
History The course of illness The presence of symptoms consistent with meningeal inflammation. The presence of seizures, an important prognostic finding. The presence of predisposing factors Immunization history Recent use of antibiotics, which may affect the yield of blood and/or CSF culture.
Examination Vital signs : volume status, presence of shock, and the presence of increased intracranial pressure. The constellation of systemic hypertension, bradycardia, and respiratory depression (Cushing triad) is a late sign of increased intracranial pressure. Head circumference should be measured at the time of admission in children younger than 18 months of age Elicitation of meningeal signs Cutaneous examinations are discussed above. Other bacterial infections (eg, facial cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, arthritis, pneumonia).
Lab evaluation Blood cultures: positive in at 50 % of patients. Among children who were not pretreated with antibiotics. Contraindications to LP: –cardiopulmonary compromise, –increased intracranial pressure, –papilledema, –altered respiratory effort, –focal neurologic signs, –skin infection over the site for LP CSF culture may be positive in the absence of pleocytosis
CSF TLC:typically >1000 WBC/microL, with a predominance of neutrophils.A CSF WBC count >6/microL is considered abnormal in children older than 3 months of age Traumatic LP: should be treated presumptively for meningitis pending results of CSF culture. The presence of a single neutrophil in the CSF is considered abnormal Glucose: 50% cases. ratio of the CSF to blood glucose concentration is usually depressed (<0.66) Protein:100 to 500 mg/dL
CSF CRP 100 % sensitive and % specific -ve CRP rules out bacterial meningitis
Role of urine culture Urine cultures should be obtained in infants (<12 months of age) who present with fever and nonspecific symptoms and signs of meningitis since urinary tract infection may be the primary source of the meningitis pathogen in such patients
Neuroimaging Indications for imaging before LP in children with suspected bacterial meningitis include –Coma –The presence of a CSF shunt –History of hydrocephalus –Recent history of CNS trauma or neurosurgery –Papilledema –Focal neurologic deficit (with the exception of palsy of cranial nerve VI [abducens nerve] or VII [facial nerve])
Bacterial Meningitis Score Positive CSF Gram stain CSF absolute neutrophil count of <1000 cells/microL CSF protein of at least 80 mg/dL Peripheral blood ANC of at least 10,000 cells/microL History of seizure before or at the time of presentation Absence of all these excludes bacterial meningitis
Treatment: General Principle Avoidance of delay Emperical antibiotic
Drug entry into CSF Most drugs reach peak concentrations in the CSF that are only 10 to 20 percent of peak concentrations in the serum. This is because the blood-brain barrier blocks macromolecule entry into the CSF, with small, lipophilic molecules penetrating most easily. The peak concentration of drugs in CSF increases with inflammation of the blood-brain barrier. The mean CSF/serum ratio two hours after administration of the same intravenous dose of penicillin was 42 percent on the first day of therapy but fell to less than 10 percent on the tenth day, when the inflammatory changes had subsided
Immediate management Assurance of adequate ventilation and cardiac perfusion. Initiation of hemodynamic monitoring Establishment of venous access. Administration of fluids as necessary to treat septic shock, if present. Administration of dexamethasone if warranted. before or immediately after the first dose of antimicrobial therapy. dexamethasone Administration of the first dose of empiric antibiotics Administration of glucose (0.25 g/kg) for documented hypoglycemia (serum glucose concentration less than 40 mg/dL Treatment of acidosis and coagulopathy
Supportive care Fluid and electrolyte management –Isotonic fluid to maintain blood pressure and cerebral perfusion. –Children who are hypovolemic, but not in shock, should be rehydrated with careful and frequent attention to fluid status. –For children who are neither in shock nor hypovolemic, moderate fluid restriction (1200 mL/m2 per day) initially, especially if the serum sodium is less than 130 meq/L. Fluid administration can be liberalized gradually as the serum sodium reaches 135 meq/L. Most children can receive maintenance fluid intake within 24 hours of hospitalization. Monitoring –increased intracranial pressure, seizure activity, development of infected subdural effusions, particularly during the first two to three days of treatment, –Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate should be monitored regularly with a frequency appropriate to the care setting. –A complete neurologic examination should be performed daily; rapid assessment of neurologic function should be performed several times per day for the first several days of treatment. –Head circumference should be measured daily in children younger than 18 months
In US (nelson) –25-50% S.pneumoniae resistant to penicillin –25 % S Pneumoniae resistant to cefotax or ceftraixone –30-40 % Hib resistant to ampicillin In INDIA ?
JIPMER Study Organisms were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 35% of cases. Among infants and children, the two major pathogens were H. influenzae (17%) and S. pneumoniae (12%). RESULTS: The illness at presentation was mild in 13% and severe in 36% of cases. The
Emperic Therapy empiric regimen should include coverage for Hib, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. E.coli in young infants High dose of 3 rd generation cephalosporin + Vancomycin
Dexamethasone Animal studies:hearing loss is associated with the severe inflammatory changes RCT and meta-analyses indicate that dexamethasone therapy provides no survival advantage in children, but reduces the incidence of deafness and severe neurologic complications in selected children, predominantly those with meningitis caused by Hib. The data are insufficient to demonstrate a clear benefit in children with pneumococcal meningitis before or within one hour of the first dose of antibiotic therapy concern that the CSF concentration of vancomycin may be diminished when administered with dexamethasone vancomycin > 6 weeks of age 0.15 mg/kg per dose) every 6 hours for 2 to 4 days
Duration of treament S. pneumoniae: days N. meningitidis: 5-7 days Hib: 7-10 days Gram –ve: 3 weeks CSF analysis near the end of therapy, particularly in young infants, needs longer therapy if –Percentage of neutrophils >30 percent, –or CSF glucose concentration <20 mg/dL
Out patient therapy Completion of at least 6 days of inpatient therapy Afebrile for at least 24 to 48 hours before initiation of outpatient therapy. No significant neurologic dysfunction or focal findings. No seizure activity. Clinical stability.
Response to therapy duration of fever is typically four to six days after the initiation of adequate therapy Persistence of fever beyond 8 days and secondary fever have a number of causes, including: –Inadequate treatment –Development of nosocomial infection –Discontinuation of dexamethasone dexamethasone –Development of a suppurative complication (pericarditis, pneumonia, arthritis, subdural empyema) –Drug fever (a diagnosis of exclusion)
Repeat CSF Poor clinical response after hours of antibiotics Persistence or recurrence of fever Gram –ve meningitis
Neuroimaging Focal neurologic signs, increasing head circumference, or prolonged obtundation, irritability, or seizures (>72 hours after the start of treatment); Persistently positive CSF cultures despite appropriate antibiotic therapy Persistent elevation of CSF neutrophils at the completion of standard duration of therapy (more than 30 to 40 percent) Recurrent meningitis
Prognosis Mortality:meta-analysis: 4520 children 4.8 %in developed countries and 8.1 % in developing countries Hib:3.8 %, N. meningitidis: 7.5 %, S. pneumoniae: 15.3 % Neurological sequele:16% in developed and 26 % in developing countries –Deafness 11 percent, including bilateral severe or profound deafness in 5 percent –Mental retardation 4 percent –Spasticity and/or paresis 4 percent –Seizures 4 percent
Poor prognostic factors Etiology: more with pneumocaccal Seizure after 72 hours CSF sugar < 20 mg per dl at admission Delayed sterlization of CSF : > 24 hours
Untreated meningitis as hydrocephalus infantile hydrocephalus due to clinically unsuspected meningitis. 8 year study period 54.2% (39/72) of hydrocephalus were found to be due to infection, far higher than what is reported from developed nations it may be a good practice to sample the CSF in every infant with hydrocephalus before a shunting
Long-term Disability Following Neonatal and Infantile Meningitis -results at 5 years of age Disability NeonatesInfantsControls n=274(%) n=1304(%) n=1391(%) Severe 20 (7.3)* 72 (5.5) 1 (0.1) – p< Moderate 50 (18.2)** 103 (7.9)20 (1.4) – p< Mild 66 (24.1) 392 (30.1) 275 (19.8) None 138 (50.4) 737 (56.5) 1095 (78.7) * not significant. ** p<0.001
Currently licensed vaccine is composed of elements of polysaccharide coat of the bacteria Serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y Recommended for control of serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreaks although its not guaranteed to control them Recommended for use among certain high risk- groups Meningococcal Vaccination
Vaccine may benefit travelers to countries in which disease is hyperendemic or epidemic A poor vaccine in children <18-24 months Immunity of limited duration, especially in young children. Only 2-3 years at best. Vaccine confers effective protection Protective levels of antibody are usually achieved within 7-10 days