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Storage and Disks.

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Presentation on theme: "Storage and Disks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Storage and Disks

2 Now Something Different
1st part of the course: Application Oriented 2nd part of the course: Systems Oriented What is “Systems”? A: Not Programming Not programming big things.. Systems = Efficient and safe use of limited resources (e.g., disks) Efficient: resources should be shared, utilized as much as possible Safe: sharing should not corrupt work of individual jobs

3 General Overview Relational model - SQL
Formal & commercial query languages Functional Dependencies Normalization Physical Design Indexing Query evaluation Query optimization …. Application Oriented Systems Oriented

4 The systems side of Databases
What will we talk about? 1. Data Organization: physical storage strategies to support efficient updates, retrieval 2. Data retrieval: auxiliary data structures to enable efficient retrieval. Techniques for processing queries to ensure efficient retrieval 3. Data Integrity: techniques for implementing Xtions, to ensure safe concurrent access to data. Ensuring data is safe in the presence of system crashes.

5 Data Organization Key points 1. Storage Media
“Memory hierarchy” Efficient/reliable transfer of data between disks and main memory Hardware techniques (RAID disks) Software techniques (Buffer mgmt) 2. Storage strategies for relations-file organization Representation of tuples on disks Storage of tuples in pages, clustering.

6 CPU Typical Computer ... ... M C Secondary Storage

7 Storage Media: Players
Cache – fastest and most costly form of storage; volatile; managed by the computer system hardware. Main memory: fast access (10s to 100s of nanoseconds; 1 nanosecond = 10–9 seconds) generally too small (or too expensive) to store the entire database Volatile — contents of main memory are usually lost if a power failure or system crash occurs. But… CPU operates only on data in main memory

8 Storage Media: Players
Disk Primary medium for the long-term storage of data; typically stores entire database. random-access – possible to read data on disk in any order, unlike magnetic tape Non-volatile: data survive a power failure or a system crash, disk failure less likely than them New technology: Solid State Disks and Flash disks

9 Storage Media: Players
Optical storage non-volatile, data is read optically from a spinning disk using a laser CD-ROM (640 MB) and DVD (4.7 to 17 GB) most popular forms Write-one, read-many (WORM) optical disks used for archival storage (CD-R and DVD-R) Multiple write versions also available (CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM) Reads and writes are slower than with magnetic disk Tapes Sequential access (very slow) Cheap, high capacity

10 Memory Hierarchy cache Main memory V Lower price Higher speed disk NV
Optical storage Tapes Traveling the hierarchy: 1. speed ( higher=faster) 2. cost (lower=cheaper) 3. volatility (between MM and Disk) 4. Data transfer (Main memory the “hub”) 5. Storage classes (P=primary, S=secondary, T=tertiary)

11 Memory Hierarchy Data transfers cache – mm : OS/hardware controlled
mm – disk : <- reads, -> writes controlled by DBMS disk – CD-Rom or DVD disk – Tapes Backups (off-line)

12 Main memory  Disk Data Xfers
Concerns: 1. Efficiency (speed) can be improved by... a. improving raw data transfer speed b. avoiding untimely data transfer c. avoiding unnecessary data transfer 2. Safety (reliability, availability) a. storing data redundantly

13 Main memory  Disk Data Xfers
Achieving efficiency: 1. Improve Raw data Xfer speed 1. Faster Disks 2. Parallelization (RAID) 2. Avoiding untimely data xfers 1. Disk scheduling 2. Batching 3. Avoiding unnecessary data xfers 1. Buffer Management 2. Good file organization

14 Hard Disk Mechanism

15 Surface of platter divided into circular tracks
Read-write head Positioned very close to the platter surface (almost touching it) Surface of platter divided into circular tracks Each track is divided into sectors. A sector is the smallest unit of data that can be read or written. To read/write a sector disk arm swings to position head on right track platter spins continually; data is read/written as sector passes under head Block: a sequence of sectors Cylinder i consists of ith track of all the platters

16 “Typical” Values Diameter: 1 inch  15 inches Cylinders: 100  2000 Surfaces: 1 or 2 (Tracks/cyl) 2 (floppies)  30 Sector Size: 512B  50K Capacity: 360 KB (old floppy)  1.5 TB

17 Performance Measures of Disks
Measuring Disk Speed Access time – consists of: Seek time – time it takes to reposition the arm over the correct track. (Rotational) latency time – time it takes for the sector to be accessed to appear under the head. Data-transfer rate – the rate at which data can be retrieved from or stored to the disk. Analogy to taking a bus: 1. Seek time: time to get to bus stop 2. Latency time; time spent waiting at bus stop 3. Data transfer time: time spent riding the bus

18 Example ST3120022A : Barracuda 7200.7 Capacity:120 GB
Interface:  Ultra ATA/100    RPM: 7200 RPM   Seek time: 8.5 ms avg Latency time?: 7200/60 = 120 rotations/sec 1 rotation in 8.3 ms => So, Av. Latency = 4.16 ms

19 Random vs sequential i/o
Ex: 1 KB Block Random I/O:  15 ms. Sequential I/O:  1 ms. Rule of Random I/O: Expensive Thumb Sequential I/O: Much less ~10-20 times

20 Performance Measures (Cont.)
Mean time to failure (MTTF) – the average time the disk is expected to run continuously without any failure. Typically 5 to 10 years Probability of failure of new disks is quite low, corresponding to a “theoretical MTTF” of 30,000 to 1,200,000 hours for a new disk E.g., an MTTF of 1,200,000 hours for a new disk means that given 1000 relatively new disks, on an average one will fail every 1200 hours MTTF decreases as disk ages

21 RAID RAID: Redundant Arrays of Independent (Inexpensive) Disks
disk organization techniques that manage a large numbers of disks, providing a view of a single disk Idea: cheaper to have many small disks, than few big disks bonus: also advantageous for: 1. speed (efficiency) 2. reliability (safety)

22 Improvement in Performance via Parallelism
Choices: D D D Dn 1. Distribute files (f1  D1, f2  D2, ....) or 2. Distribute parts of files (“striping”)  block striping  sector striping ......  bit striping

23 Parallelization File distribution Striping +: improved ||’ism (speed)
+: Availability: Many files still available if a disk goes down recovery requires fewer disks - : but still sequential read for each file Striping +: improved ||’ism (speed) ( - : but a single disk failure catastrophic!)

24 Improving Reliability
Measure: MTTF Striping reduces reliability: why? Solution = Redundancy Redundancy: store data on more than 1 disk E.g. “mirroring” (duplicate disks) (1 disk stored on 2) Then, MTTF for both disks: 57,000 yrs! assuming MTTF for each disk is 11 yrs. logical disk

25 RAID Levels Schemes to provide redundancy at lower cost by using disk striping combined with parity bits Different RAID organizations, or RAID levels, have differing cost, performance and reliability characteristics RAID Level 0: Block striping; non-redundant. Used in high-performance applications where data loss is not critical. RAID Level 1: Mirrored disks with block striping Offers good write performance. Popular for applications such as storing log files in a database system.

26 RAID Levels (Cont.) RAID Level 2: Memory-Style Error-Correcting-Codes (ECC) with bit striping. RAID Level 3: Bit-Interleaved Parity a single parity bit is enough for error correction, not just detection, since we know which disk has failed When writing data, corresponding parity bits must also be computed and written to a parity bit disk To recover data in a damaged disk, compute XOR of bits from other disks (including parity bit disk)

27 RAID Levels (Cont.) RAID Level 3 (Cont.)
Faster data transfer than with a single disk, but fewer I/Os per second since every disk has to participate in every I/O. Subsumes Level 2 (provides all its benefits, at lower cost). RAID Level 4: Block-Interleaved Parity; uses block-level striping, and keeps a parity block on a separate disk for corresponding blocks from N other disks. When writing data block, corresponding block of parity bits must also be computed and written to parity disk To find value of a damaged block, compute XOR of bits from corresponding blocks (including parity block) from other disks.

28 RAID Levels (Cont.) RAID Level 4 (Cont.)
Provides higher I/O rates for independent block reads than Level 3 Provides high transfer rates for reads of multiple blocks than no-striping Before writing a block, parity data must be computed Can be done by using old parity block, old value of current block and new value of current block (2 block reads + 2 block writes) Parity block becomes a bottleneck for independent block writes since every block write also writes to parity disk

29 RAID Levels (Cont.) RAID Level 5: Block-Interleaved Distributed Parity; partitions data and parity among all N + 1 disks, rather than storing data in N disks and parity in 1 disk. E.g., with 5 disks, parity block for nth set of blocks is stored on disk (n mod 5) + 1, with the data blocks stored on the other 4 disks.

30 RAID Levels (Cont.) RAID Level 5 (Cont.)
Higher I/O rates than Level 4. Block writes occur in parallel if the blocks and their parity blocks are on different disks. Subsumes Level 4: provides same benefits, but avoids bottleneck of parity disk. RAID Level 6: P+Q Redundancy scheme; similar to Level 5, but stores extra redundant information to guard against multiple disk failures. Better reliability than Level 5 at a higher cost; not used as widely.

31 Choice of RAID Level Factors in choosing RAID level
Monetary cost Performance: Number of I/O operations per second, and bandwidth during normal operation Performance during failure Performance during rebuild of failed disk Including time taken to rebuild failed disk RAID 0 is used only when data safety is not important E.g. data can be recovered quickly from other sources Level 2 and 4 never used since they are subsumed by 3 and 5 Level 3 is not used anymore since bit-striping forces single block reads to access all disks, wasting disk arm movement, which block striping (level 5) avoids Level 6 is rarely used since levels 1 and 5 offer adequate safety for almost all applications So competition is between 1 and 5 only

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