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Hard Disks Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning:

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Presentation on theme: "Hard Disks Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hard Disks Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive. High-level format defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the disk.

2 Storage Systems Hard Drives –2 Types: SCSI and IDE IDE drives- –originally developed as alternative to more expensive SCSI drives. –Modern versions called EIDE drives. –Support up to 4 multigigabyte drives. –If you want more devices, use SCSI or USB –Low-level formatted at the factory

3 Low Level Formatting Low level format scans disk for defects and sets aside sectors with defects so they are not used for data. IDE drives should never be low level formatted by a user or technician. Only high level format necessary.

4 Installing IDE/EIDE drives IDE supports TWO drives in a system –one master (boot disk) and one slave –set master and slave using jumpers EIDE supports FOUR drives per system –2 drives on each of 2 cables –only one master, all others are slaves IDE and EIDE drives both use 40-pin ribbon cable aligned to pin 1

5 Hard Drive

6 Floppies Two sizes –3.5 inch –5.25 inch 3.5 inch holds 1.44 MB for High density and 750 KB for Double Density Connected with 34 pin ribbon cable Two Floppy Drives possible Has twist in cable to distinguish A drive from B drive

7 SCSI Pronounced Scuzzy Small Computer Systems Interface For wide range of peripheral devices, including hard disks, tape drives, optical drives, CD-ROMs and disk arrays. 8 devices can connect to a daisy chain This chain must be terminated at both ends Each device on chain is assigned unique device ID number that is determined by jumpers or DIP switches

8 Installing and configuring SCSI SCSI bus supports 8 devices There are eight SCSI IDs numbered 0 through 7 ID 7 is always reserved for the SCSI host adapter SCSI hard disk, if used as a boot drive, is assigned SCSI ID 0 If you have both IDE and SCSI hard drive, IDE drive should be boot drive

9 Types of SCSIs SCSI 1- 5 MB transfer rate, Centronics 50 pin or DB 25, has 8 bit bus SCSI 2 -also SCSI Fast Wide, includes 16 bit bus, called Wide SCSI, and twice as fast transfer rate SCSI 3- Includes Ultra SCSI, Wide Ultra SCSI, and Ultra 2 SCSI, 16 bit bus with up to 80 MBps transfer rate

10 RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks Category of disk drives that employs 2 or more drives in combination for fault tolerance (error recovery) 10 levels of RAID 3 on test will be: RAID 0, RAID 3, RAID 5

11 RAID continued RAID 0- Striped disk without parity RAID 3- Parallel transfer with parity RAID 5- Data striping with parity

12 How Data is Organized on Disk Tracks- –circular areas of the disk –Length of a track one circumference of disk –Over 1000 on a hard disk –Data first written to outer most track Sectors- –Divides tracks sections –On a floppy 9 sectors exits Cylinders- –Logical groupings of the the same track on each disk surface in a disk unit Clusters- –Groups of sectors used by operating system –64 sectors in one cluster

13 Track= concentric circle Sector = small arc of track Can store 512 bytes Tracks and sectors

14 Interleaving Allows the read/write head to use the rotation of the disk to its advantage One sector is written to and the disk skips to several sectors down

15 Formatting Low level formatting done at factory –Builds the File Allocation Table (FAT) –Physically scans the disk media for defects Remember FAT is always located at Track 0 High level formatting is automatically done during installation of operating system

16 Operating System File Systems DOS uses FAT Windows 3.x uses Virtual FAT Win 95 uses VFAT and FAT32 Win NT uses NTFS

17 Partitioning FDISK command is used Divides hard drive into logical subdivisions which are seen by the operating system as separate logical hard disks. Hard drives divided into primary and extended partitions. The primary partition boots the system. Can have up to 4 primary partitions

18 Partitioning Extended can be divided up to 23 times on disk. Partitioning disks improves disk efficiency through reduced cluster size. In DOS, Win 3x and early versions of Win 95 a hard disk over 2 GB must be divided into smaller partions Now Win 95 and Win 98 can create a primary partition of up to 8 GB Following partition, the first sector on cylinder 0 reserved for master boot record

19 Disk compression Reduce amount of space taken up by files by substituting codes for repeating patterns of data To access data on compressed disk, must load disk compression utility into RAM first This disk compression utility works between OS and disk controller to intercept requests and compress or decompress files- the result is slower disk access

20 Backing up data Archival: full backup- contains everything from the hard disk Incremental: contains only files that have been modified since last (previous) backup Differential: backs up all the data modified since last full backup Copy backup: copy duplicate of file, directory, or disk to another disk

21 CD ROM Capacity of 650 MB Transfer speeds of around 24X speed –X refers to the transfer speed in the first CD ROM, which was 150 K CD is the slowest device on PC When installing to IDE system must be configured as slave WORM and EO


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