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Dr. Patricia Stanley Dr. Margaret “Peggy” King Thomas Brown Increasing First-Year Student Engagement, Learning and Success In Community Colleges.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Patricia Stanley Dr. Margaret “Peggy” King Thomas Brown Increasing First-Year Student Engagement, Learning and Success In Community Colleges."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Patricia Stanley Dr. Margaret “Peggy” King Thomas Brown Increasing First-Year Student Engagement, Learning and Success In Community Colleges

2 Fulfilling the Promise of the Community College Co-editors Thomas Brown Margaret C. King Patricia Stanley Co-sponsored by National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition American Association of Community Colleges

3 Fulfilling the Promise of the Community College  Why this monograph now?  Overarching principles  Themes and organization  Fall 2011-Spring 2012 Innovative Educators webinar series  FYE Institute-November 6-8

4 Community colleges have gone from being the stepchild to being the golden child… Dr. Frank Chong, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Community Colleges Whether providing vocational training, a pathway to transfer, or continuing professional development, community colleges are about enhancing human capital, increasing access, and creating social equity in the 21 st century. Jennifer Keup, Director National Resource Center

5 Community colleges are being challenged to play a key role in the nation’s efforts to double the number of college graduates in the next 10 years. The first-year, indeed the first few weeks of the beginning semester, is a pivotal point in students’ academic careers. Brown, King, & Stanley, 2011

6 Overview of the Monograph Guided by several overarching principles:  The learning college movement: how do you know what students are learning and achieving  Measures of students success should differ between two- and four-year colleges due to diversity of students  The multiple missions of community colleges make them unique in the nation and world

7 Overview of the Monograph Describes the distinctive characteristics of first-year student experiences and challenges in community college based on research and effective practices.

8 Arranged in three parts Part 1: establishes the context for examining the first-year experience in community colleges. Part 2: examines broad strategies for increasing student success including professional development and effective transfer initiatives. Part 3: addresses specific interventions to support first-year students learning and engagement and persistence, including transition programs, academic advising, and learning communities

9 Chapter 1: The American Community College: From Access to Success Dr. George Boggs President Emeritus and Chief Executive Officer American Association of Community Colleges Former Superintendent/President Palomar College

10 The Evolution of Colleges of Opportunity Since the founding of Joliet College in 1901, community colleges have evolved to become the most egalitarian of all higher education institutions— democracy’s colleges. They have evolved to include workforce, community, and developmental education and lifelong learning

11 Distinctive Characteristics of Community Colleges Access, to Persistence, and Inclusion Community colleges provide access to higher education for those who plan to continue their education at the four-year level, as well as for those seeking career-technical education, and also for people who choose or are unable to attend a four year college

12 Distinctive Characteristics of Community Colleges  Community Responsiveness and Innovation Responding to community needs is an integral part to the service mission. Innovation in partnering with local business and industry to design training programs to meet workforce needs. Encouraging entrepreneurship, hosting Small Business Development Centers or business incubators that nurture fledgling entrepreneurs.

13 Distinctive Characteristics of Community Colleges  Small class-size and a focus on teaching. More on-to-one relationships between students and faculty. A primary focus on teaching and learning rather than an emphasis on research and publishing. Retain faculty with experience working in specific or highly specialized fields

14 The Learning College Model and the Success and Completion Agenda  Achieving the Dream  Gates Foundation Postsecondary Success Initiative  The Obama Administration Higher Education Agenda  Voluntary Framework of Accountability

15 Chapter 2: Understanding Entering Community College Students: Learning from Student Voices Dr. Kay McClenney, Director of the Center for Community College Student Engagement University of Texas Austin

16 Understanding data—whether quantitative or qualitative—about their students is only the first step for community colleges to strengthen entering student success. Ultimately, it takes a sustained commitment to engage in continuous inquiry to design first-year programs to enhance student success.

17 Engagement Matters  For community college students who are frequently juggling multiple challenges and obligations, engagement is critical.  It may even the playing field, heightening chances of success for students who bring an assortment of risk factors to college with them.

18 Purpose of the Chapter  Focus on the characteristics and earliest experience of community college students, as revealed through national data, student surveys, and focus groups Community College Survey of student Engagement (CCSSE) Survey of Entering Student Engagement (SENSE)

19 Typically, the data initially raise more questions than they answer...beginning the important campus process of building a culture of evidence and inquiry. McClenney, 2011

20 Benchmarks of Effective Practice with Entering Students  Early connections  High expectations and aspirations  Clear academic plan and pathway  An effective track to college readiness  Engaged learning  Academic and social support network

21 Benchmarks of Effective Practice with Entering Students  Early connections Asked why they persisted, students typically referred to a strong early connection to someone at the college…

22 Benchmarks of Effective Practice with Entering Students  An effective track to college readiness One of the major challenges is the significant proportion of students who enter under-prepared for college level work. Therefore it is key to  assess academic skills  Appropriate course placement  Effective instructional and support strategies

23 What needs to be done  Build a culture of evidence  Treat Each Entering Group of Students as a distinct Cohort  Commit to the discipline of routine student cohort tracking  Purposefully Design the Entering Student Experience  Require and take experience where the students are  Bring programs to scale

24 What needs to be done  Emerging evidence suggests that certain educational experience may contribute significantly to the likelihood of students success. Examples include: College orientation programs First-year seminars Student success courses Leaning communities

25 At some point it behooves community college educators to overcome their reluctance to make mandatory experiences shown to enhance student learning, persistence, and attainment. McClenney, 2011

26 Chapter 3: Enhancing First Year Success in the Community College: What Works in Student Retention Dr. Wesley Habley, Principal Associate Coordinator of American College Testing (ACT) Office of State Organizations

27  Review of community college retention to persistence to degree data from ACT’s Institutional Data questionnaire (1983 – 2009)  Results from ACT’s What Works in Student Retention Survey, Spring 2009  Three sets of recommendations for increasing student success

28 Community College Retention Rates  Highest Rate – 53.7% (2008, 2009)  Lowest Rate – 51.3% (2004)

29 What Works in Student Retention  40.7% of campuses have a retention coordinator  32.1% had goals for retention  Institutional respondents more likely to place responsibility for attrition on student characteristics rather than institutional factors

30 Most Common Retention Interventions  Faculty use of technology in teaching  Tutoring  College sponsored social activities  Mandated placement  Required developmental coursework  Individual career counseling

31 Highest Rated Interventions or Practices  Reading Center/Lab  Comprehensive Learning Center/Lab  Tutoring  Mandated placement  Required developmental coursework  Increased number of academic advisors

32 Highest Rated Interventions (cont.)  Of the top eleven, seven focus on learning support and four on academic advising

33 Interventions used in Colleges with Higher Retention Rates  pre-enrollment financial aid advising  Comprehensive learning assistance center/lab  Diagnostic academic skills assessment  Programs for racial/ethnic minorities  Reading center/lab  Center that integrates academic advising with career/life planning

34 Interventions (cont.)  Required developmental coursework  Increased number of academic advisors  Integration of academic advising with first-year transition programs  Staff mentoring

35  Student success is not an accident – it is the result of intentional activities taken by the college

36 Chapter 4: Reframing At-Risk to High Potential: Supporting the Achievement and Success of Underprepared Students Dr. Mario Rivas, Professor of Psychology Merritt College Thomas Brown, Managing Principal Thomas Brown & Associates, LLC

37 Community colleges make winners out of ordinary people. Leslie Koltai, 1993 The majority of community college students are academically underprepared to achieve success. Schuetz & Bailey, 2008

38 The mission of the community college presupposes that in order for first year students to succeed, they must be engaged with educators who believe in the capacity of all students to develop and learn. Rivas and Brown, 2011

39 While faculty and staff may be committed to student success, most institutions have a fragmented approach to responding to student needs. Sperling, 2009 They are more likely to blame student attrition on students (WWISR, 2004, 2010)

40 1. This chapter defines under- preparedness and examines how being underprepared combines with institutional characteristics to influence first-year student learning, engagement and persistence.

41 2. It offers a teaching and advising method that can increase student success in the first-year of college. 3. Makes recommendations for strategies to enable community colleges to actualize their mission and goals and fulfill their promise.

42 Underprepared students are not ready for college-level work because of gaps in one or more of the following areas  General knowledge (e.g., history, lit, civics)  Skills areas (e.g., reading, writing, math)  Study skills and self management  Critical thinking and analysis  Technological competencies  Knowledge of behaviors leading to success  A vision supporting motivation & persistence  Willingness to take instructors advice Sally Rings, Pima Community College, 2000

43 Many kinds of under-preparedness including:  Adult/re-entry students  First generation/low-SES students  First-year students  International students  Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender students  Multicultural students  Multilingual/ESL students  Student-athletes  Students with disabilities  Veterans  Undecided/Exploratory students

44 Multiple issues…  Adult/re-entry students AND ALSO…  First generation/low-SES students  First-year students  International students  Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender students  Multicultural students  Multilingual/ESL students  Student-athletes  Students with disabilities  Veterans  Undecided/Exploratory students

45 From a psychological perspective, under-preparedness may stem from low-self efficacy, or the sense that one has little control over thoughts, feeling, and actions conducive to success. Bandura, 1985

46 Cognitive, Emotional, and Behavioral Barriers to Student Success  Attributions regarding ability  Ego vs. Task involvement  Reluctance to seek assistance

47 Offers the 0-100% Teaching and Advising Method to support students to share the responsibility for learning and to shift from a focus on grades to a focus on learning and mastery.

48 Recommends use of an intrusive, active outreach approach to engaging under-prepared students.

49 Chapter 5: Developing and Engaging Educators to Support First-Year Student Success Dr. Christine McPhail Past President, Cypress College Founding Professor Community College Leadership Program Morgan State University Thomas Brown, Managing Principal Thomas Brown & Associates, LLC

50 Community colleges must seek to systematically enhance and expand the ways they provide professional development in order to improve the first-year learning experience. McPhail & Brown, 2011

51 Students rely on faculty and staff to inform them about what is required to be academically successful. Faculty and staff significantly influence students decision to persist or drop out and suggests that colleges must teach faculty and staff how to improve the quality of their interactions with students. Patricia Farrell, 2009

52 Many campuses are ill-prepared to support first year and other students to achieve success due to a lack of pre- service and in-service professional development, as well as training efforts that are sporadic, or that focus only on full time faculty. Brown & McPhail, 2011

53 Linking Professional Development to Student Success  Most community college faculty receive little or no training to deal with increasing numbers of underprepared students. Carnegie Foundation 2008  Less than 1/3 of community college faculty indicate they had adequate preparation and training before beginning their work as advisors Brown 2009

54 Community colleges must examine the quality and scope of their current professional development efforts and make on-going professional development part of the job description for all part-time and fulltime campus faculty and staff. McPhail & Costner, 2004; Carnegie, 2008

55 This chapter expands the lens of professional development to view it as essential to first-year student success It describes the conceptual, relational, and informational elements that constitute comprehensive professional development.  Conceptual: what educators must understand  Informational: what educators must know  Relational: What educators must do

56 This chapter expands the lens of professional development to view it as essential to first-year student success It suggests standards for developing educators to employ strategies and techniques that can lead to increased student success in the first-year and beyond.  Context Standards: aligned with mission, vision, core values, etc.  Process Standards: needs assessments, targeted programs, multiple formats, use data to determine priorities

57 A Model for Ensuring Student Success

58 Changing Environment & Changing Students 1 st Year 2 nd Year 3 rd Year and beyond PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL Lynch, 1989; Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000; Brown, 2006 Need for Information Need for Consultation Changing Needs Moving InMoving Through Moving On I I/ S I/S S/ I S I = Faculty, counselors, academic advisors, etc. S = Student

59 Chapter 6: Creating Effective Transfer Initiatives Dr. Thomas Grites, Asst. to the Provost, Richard Stockton College Susan Rondeau, Counselor (retired), Pima Community College

60  Focus on transfer initiatives that originate from outside the institution  Focus on transfer initiatives specific to community colleges and receiving institutions  Focus on cooperative efforts

61 External Initiatives  Legislative initiatives e.g. full guarantees of credit  Transfer websites e.g. College Source Online, Inc.

62 Community College Initiatives  Adopting a philosophy of transfer  Orientations, workshops, classes e.g. Pima Community College University Transfer Preparation course

63 Four-year College Initiatives  Pre-transfer initiatives e.g. maintenance of data bases, articulation agreements, outreach efforts (Transfer Days)  Post-transfer initiatives e.g. orientation programs, transfer student seminar, peer mentors

64 Cooperative Initiatives  Degree completion program on site  Degree completion program on multiple sites

65 Recommendations  Improve data driven decision making  Extend orientation programs

66 Chapter 7: Planning and Implementing for Effective Transitions Dr. Betsy O. Barefoot, Vice-President John N. Gardner Institute for Excellence in Undergraduate Education Dr. Paul Arcario, Dean LaGuardia Community College Dr. Ana Guzman, President Palo Alto College

67 Purpose of this chapter  Explores challenges and opportunities for community colleges in designing and implementing effective transition programs.  Examines the most frequently used types of transition programs  Shares institutional case studies of successful initiatives at LaGuardia Community College (NY) and Palo Alto College (TX)

68 Challenges to Effective Transition Programming  Large number of commuter students  Early departure of first-year students  Diversity of students with differing needs  Determining the specific mix of cost- effective transition programs

69 Pre-term orientation programs  Despite strong recommendations, only 50% of community colleges offer mandatory orientation programs  Exponential growth in on-line programs  Time and timing of orientation

70 Extended orientation programs  The majority of community colleges offer extended orientation courses, but only 20% require such classes  Research demonstrates improved grades and a higher percentage of persistence for students participating in extended programs.

71 Case Studies  The transition to college life at LaGuardia Community College  Building a Successful First-Year Seminar at Palo Alto College

72 Lessons learned and recommendations  In order for first-year programming to be sustained, they must be considered essential and be supported by senior administrators.  Programs should be required  Pilot “boutique” programs must be scaled up to enhance overall retention and success  Programs often have effects beyond their original intent

73 Chapter 8: Academic Advising Models to Support Student Success Dr. Peggy King, Associate Dean Emerita Schenectady County Community College Rusty Fox, Vice-President for Student Development Tarrant County Community College

74  90% of students say that academic advising is important yet only 56% use this service sometimes or often  35% rarely or never use academic advising services (CCSSE)  It is important to help students understand the importance of academic advising

75 Learning Outcomes for Academic Advising  Intellectual growth  Realistic self-appraisal

76 5 Critical Skills/Abilities of Successful Advisors  A base of competence  A skilled confidence builder

77 Key Considerations in Designing Advising Programs  Student population  Organizational structure  Budget  Leadership  Advisor development  Assessment

78 Organizational Models of Advising  Centralized  Decentralized  Shared

79 The Ideal Model for Community Colleges?

80 Chapter 9: Career Development: An Essential Component of First-Year Experience and Student Transition Dr. Patricia Stanley First Deputy Assistant Secretary for Community Colleges President, Frederick Community College

81 Career Development is life long, as is community college education…

82 The community college as the Nexus of career pathways  Experiential Education and Career Pathways  Adult Education and Career Pathways  Baccalaureate Programs in the Two- year College  Career Development Services Online  The impact of Career Pathways Initiatives on Student Retention

83 Programs that Work  Quinsigamond Community College  Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College

84 Chapter 10: Learning Communities and Community Colleges: The Challenges and Benefits Dr. Randy Jedele, Humanities Dept. Chair Coordinator of Learning Communities Des Moines Area CC Dr. Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor, Syracuse University

85  Regardless of how we choose to define success in college – whether it is a statistical measure of persistence and retention, or gains in critical thinking and writing abilities that show up as positive outcomes on student learning assessments, we now have compelling evidence to suggest that creating learning communities on campuses leads to greater student success in college (Shapiro and Levine, 1999).

86 A Rationale for Learning Communities  Organize students and faculty into smaller groups  Encourage integration of the curriculum  Help students establish academic and social networks

87 Learning Community Models  Paired or clustered (linked courses)  Cohorts in large courses (Freshman Interest Groups)  Team taught programs  Residence based learning communities

88 Research Findings  Institutional differences  Special challenges  Unique benefits

89 Effective Practices  Collin County Community College  Delta College  Des Moines Area Community College  Kingsborough Community College

90 Chapter 11: Increasing Access and Success in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Dr. Kim Armstrong Assistant Dean of Student Support Services at Black Hawk College

91 All along the educational pipeline, students are being lost in STEM fields. This is particularly true for women and students from historically underrepresented groups. Armstrong, 2011

92 National statistics reveal that community colleges provide access for all students, especially those who have been underrepresented in STEM fields. We look for community colleges to play a significant and unique role in STEM education. “ Role of Community Colleges in STEM Education” Hoffman, Starobin, Santos-Lanaan, & Rivera, 2010

93 This chapter  Examines the role of community colleges in preparing students for STEM careers  Consider the barriers to participation in STEM fields  Identifies effective strategies for increasing the pool and success rates for STEM students  Highlights some exemplary programs

94 Barriers to participation and success  Lack of exposure to STEM fields and careers  Lack role models and mentors  Inadequate pre-college preparation  Unsupportive teaching and learning environment on campus

95 Role of community colleges in preparing students for STEM careers  Contextual learning  Experiential education  College readiness programs  On-going professional development for instructors in STEM  Mentoring programs  Opportunities for collaborative learning

96 Role of community colleges in preparing students for STEM careers  Developmental education  Bridge programs  Careers and Technical Education models  Transfer pipelines  Faculty development initiatives

97 Recommendations for increasing access and success in STEM  K-12/14/16/20 partnerships  Fostering development of STEM instructors  Develop mentorship programs  Diversify the STEM faculty  “Stalk the second tier and beyond”

98 Concluding Thoughts…

99 Successful program characteristics  History of working collaboratively across programs, academic disciplines and services  Well designed learning communities  Ability to make data-driven decisions and plan strategically

100 Summary and Recommendations Editors and community college leaders who support first-year programs at their colleges  Create intentionally designed comprehensive programs  Cultivate support from campus leadership  Establish relevant benchmarks for success  Build a culture of evidence

101 Webinar Series Increasing First-Year Student Engagement, Learning and Success in Community Colleges Understanding Entering Community College Students ~ 10/20 What Works in Student Retention in Community Colleges ~ 11/3 Building Paths to First Year Student Success: Planning and Implementing Effective Student Transitions Programs ~ 11/17 Academic Advising: A Critical Link to First-Year Student Success ~ 12/1 Registration

102 Increasing First-Year Student Engagement, Learning and Success In Community Colleges Dr. Patricia Stanley Dr. Margaret “Peggy” King Thomas Brown


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